NT
Kirtland's Warbler Setophaga kirtlandii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Setophaga kirtlandii (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Dendroica following AOU (1998 & supplements); Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993); Stotz et al. (1996).

 

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened C2a(ii)
2016 Near Threatened C2a(ii); D2
2012 Near Threatened C2a(ii);D2
2008 Near Threatened C2a(ii); D2
2005 Near Threatened
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 277,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 237,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 4500-5000 medium estimated 2015
Population trend Increasing good estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.6 - - -

Population justification: The population size continues to increase, with latest estimates (2015) putting it at around 2,365 singing males (Michigan Department of Natural Resources 2015). The population is estimated at 4,500-5,000 mature individuals (D. Ewert in litt. 2016), which equates to 6750-7,500 individuals, rounded here to 6.800-7,500 individuals.

Trend justification: Following major declines in c.1900-1920 and 1961-19715, numbers have recovered from 167 singing males in 1974 to 1,478 singing males in Michigan in 2006, the highest since surveys began in 1951 (Wunderle et al. 2006).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bahamas N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes
Turks and Caicos Islands (to UK) N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bahamas South Tarpum Bay
Bahamas Southern Abaco
USA Kirtland's Warbler Management Units & Guide's Rest

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Forest Temperate major breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Climate change & severe weather Droughts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Molothrus ater Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Supression in fire frequency/intensity Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Negligible declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Setophaga kirtlandii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/07/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 18/07/2019.