King Penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus


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Crawford, R.J.M.; Whittington, P.A.; Upfold, L.; Ryan, P.G.; Petersen, S.L.; Dyer, B.M.; Cooper, J. 2009. Recent trends in four species of penguin at the Prince Edward Islands. African Journal of Marine Science 31: 419–426.

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Gryz, P., Gerlée, A.& Korczak-Abshire, M. 2019. New breeding site and records of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus) on King George Island (South Shetlands, Western Antarctic). Polar Record 54: 275-283.

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Jiguet, F. & Jouventin, P. 1999. Individual breeding decisions and long‐term reproductive strategy in the King Penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus. Ibis 141 (3): 428-433.

Juáres, M.A., Ferrer, F., Coria, N.R. & Santos, M. M. 2017. Breeding events of king penguin at the South Shetland Islands: Has it come to stay? Polar Biology 40: 457-461.

Kusch, A.; Marín, M. 2012. On the distribution of the king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus (Aves: Spheniscidae) in Chile. Anales Instituto Patagonia (Chile) 40(1): 157-163.

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Orgeret, F., Péron, C., Enstipp, M., Delord, K., Weimerskirch, H., Bost, C.A. 2019. 2019. Exploration during early life: dispersal, habitat and orientation preferences in juvenile king penguins. Movement Ecology 7: 29.

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Péron, C.; Weimerskirch, H.; Bost, C. A. 2012. Projected poleward shift of king penguins'(Aptenodytes patagonicus) foraging range at the Crozet Islands, southern Indian Ocean. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 279: 2515-2523.

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Rounsevell, D.; Binns, D. 1991. Mass deaths of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonica) at Lusitania Bay, Macquarie Island. Aurora 10(4): 8-10.

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Trucchi, E., Paolo Gratton, Jason D. Whittington, Robin Cristofari, Yvon Le Maho, Nils Chr Stenseth, Céline Le Bohec. 2014. King penguin demography since the last glaciation inferred from genome-wide data. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281: 20140528; DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0528.

Van Heezik, Y.M.; Seddon, P.J.; Cooper, J.; Plös, A.L. 1994. Interrelationships between breeding frequency, timing and outcome in King Penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus: are King Penguins biennial breeders? . Ibis 136: 279–284.

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Weimerskirch, H., Le Bouard, F., Ryan, P. G., & Bost, C. A. 2018. 2018. Massive decline of the world’s largest king penguin colony at Ile aux Cochons, Crozet. Antarctic Science 30(4): 236-242.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Penguin Specialist Group

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

View photos and videos and hear sounds of this species from the Internet Bird Collection

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Aptenodytes patagonicus. Downloaded from on 27/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 27/03/2023.