King Penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus


Bost, C.A., Delord, K., Barbraud, C.; Cotte, C., Peron, C. et al. 2013. The King Penguin: Life History, current status and priority conservation actions. Eds P. dee Boersma & P. G. Borboroglu, University of Washinton Press, Seatlle, U.S.A., pp.360. In: Penguins Book.

Commonwealth of Australia. 2014. Heard Island and McDonald Islands Marine Reserve Management Plan . Department of the Environment, Canberra.

Convey, P.; Morton, A.; Poncet, J. 1999. Survey of marine birds and mammals of the South Sandwich Islands. Polar Record 35(193): 107-124.

Cooper J.; Avenant N.L.; Lafite P.W. 1994. Airdrops and King Penguins: a potential conservation problem at sub-Antarctic Marion Island. Polar Record 30 (175): 277-82.

Cooper, J.; Crawford, R. J. M.; De Villiers, M. S.; Dyer, B. M.; Hofmeyr, G. J. G.; Jonker, A. 2009. Disease outbreaks among penguins at sub-Antarctic Marion Island: A conservation concern. Marine Ornithology 37: 193–196.

Crawford, R.J.M.; Whittington, P.A.; Upfold, L.; Ryan, P.G.; Petersen, S.L.; Dyer, B.M.; Cooper, J. 2009. Recent trends in four species of penguin at the Prince Edward Islands. African Journal of Marine Science 31: 419–426.

Cristofari, R., Xiaoming Liu, Francesco Bonadonna, Yves Cherel, Pierre Pistorius, Yvon Le Maho, Virginie Raybaud, Nils Christian Stenseth, Céline Le Bohec & Emiliano Trucchi. 2018. Climate-driven range shifts of the king penguin in a fragmented ecosystem. Nature Climate Change 8: 245–251; doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0084-2.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Dyer, B.M.; Crawford, R.J.M. 2015. King Penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus. In: Taylor MR, Wanless RM and Peacock, F. (eds) The Eskom Red Data Book of Birds of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland. BirdLife South Africa, Johannesburg: 333-335.

Ellis, S.; Croxall, J.P.; Cooper, J. 1998. Penguin conservation assessment and management plan: report from the workshop held 8-9 September 1996, Cape Town, South Africa. IUCN/SSC, Apple Valley, USA.

Garnett, S. T.; Szabo, J. K.; Dutson, G. 2011. The Action Plan for Australian Birds 2010. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood.

Jaksic, F. M. and Yanez, J. L. 1983. Rabbit and fox introductions in Tierra del Fuego: history and assessment of the attempts at biological control of the rabbit infestation. Biological Conservation 26: 367-374.

Kusch, A.; Marín, M. 2012. On the distribution of the king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus (Aves: Spheniscidae) in Chile. Anales Instituto Patagonia (Chile) 40(1): 157-163.

Moore, G.J., Robertson, G., Weineke, B. 1998. Food requirements of breeding King Penguins at Heard Island and potential overlap with commercial fisheries. Polar Biology 20: 293–302.

Olsson, O.; van der Jeugd, H.P. 2002. Survival in King Penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus: temporal variability and sex-specific effects of environmental variability. Oecologia 132: 509–516.

Parks and Wildlife Service. Evaluation Report: Macquarie Island Pest Eradication Project, August 2014. . Department of Primary Industries, Parks, Water and Environment, Hobart, Tasmania.

Péron, C.; Weimerskirch, H.; Bost, C. A. 2012. Projected poleward shift of king penguins'(Aptenodytes patagonicus) foraging range at the Crozet Islands, southern Indian Ocean. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences 279: 2515-2523.

Rounsevell, D.; Binns, D. 1991. Mass deaths of king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonica) at Lusitania Bay, Macquarie Island. Aurora 10(4): 8-10.

Sallée, J. B.; Speer, K. G.; Rintoul, S. R. 2010. Zonally asymmetric response of the Southern Ocean mixed-layer depth to the Southern Annular Mode. Nature Geoscience 3: 273-279.

Trucchi, E., Paolo Gratton, Jason D. Whittington, Robin Cristofari, Yvon Le Maho, Nils Chr Stenseth, Céline Le Bohec. 2014. King penguin demography since the last glaciation inferred from genome-wide data. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 281: 20140528; DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.0528.

Van Heezik, Y.M.; Seddon, P.J.; Cooper, J.; Plös, A.L. 1994. Interrelationships between breeding frequency, timing and outcome in King Penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus: are King Penguins biennial breeders? . Ibis 136: 279–284.

Waller, L.J.; Underhill, L.G. 2007. Management of avian cholera Pasteurella multocida outbreaks on Dyer Island, South Africa, 2002–2005. African Journal of Marine Science 29: 105–111.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Penguin Specialist Group

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Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Aptenodytes patagonicus. Downloaded from on 10/07/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 10/07/2020.