King Eider Somateria spectabilis


Bentzen, R. L., & Powell, A. N. 2012. Population dynamics of king eiders breeding in northern Alaska. Journal of Wildlife Management 76(5): 1011-1020.

Byers, T.; Dickson, D .L. 2001. Spring migration and subsistence hunting of king and common eiders at Holman, Northwest Territories, 1996-98. Arctic 54(2): 122-134.

Carboneras, C. & Kirwan, G.M. 2017. King Eider (Somateria spectabilis). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. & de Juana, E. (ed.), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

del Hoyo, J.; Elliot, A.; Sargatal, J. 1992. Handbook of the Birds of the World, Vol. 1: Ostrich to Ducks. Lynx Edicions, Barcelona, Spain.

Falk, K., Merkel, F., Kampp, K., & Jamieson, S. E. 2006. Embedded lead shot and infliction rates in common eiders Somateria mollissima and king eiders S. spectabilis wintering in southwest Greenland. Wildlife Biology 12(3): 257-265.

Flint, P. L., Grand, J. B., Petersen, M. R., & Rockwell, R. F. 2016. Effects of Lead Exposure, Environmental Conditions, and Metapopulation Processes on Population Dynamics of Spectacled Eiders. North American Fauna 81(1): 1-41.

Flint, V.E.; Boehme, R.L.; Kostin, Y.V.; Kuznetsov, A.A. 1984. A field guide to birds of the USSR. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey.

Fox, A. D., Jónsson, J. E., Aarvak, T., Bregnballe, T., Christensen, T. K., Clausen, K. K., Clausen, P., Dalby, L., Holm, T.E., Pavon-Jordan, D., Laursen, K., Lehikoinen, A., Lorentsen, S., Moller, A.P., Nordstrom, M., Ost, M., Soderquist, P., Therkildsen, O.R. 2015. Current and Potential Threats to Nordic Duck Populations — A Horizon Scanning Exercise. Annales Zoologici Fennici 52(4): 193-220.

Grand, J. B., Flint, P. L., Petersen, M. R., & Moran, C. L. 1998. Effect of lead poisoning on spectacled eider survival rates. The Journal of wildlife management 1: 1103-1109.

Hansen, K. 2002. A farewell to Greenland's wildlife. Gads Forlag, Copenhagen.

Henderson, J., Loe, J. 2014. The Prospects and Challenges for Arctic Oil Development. The Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.

Johnsgard, P.A. 1978. Ducks, geese and swans of the World. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London.

Kear, J. 2005. Ducks, geese and swans volume 2: species accounts (Cairina to Mergus). Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

Madge, S.; Burn, H. 1988. Wildfowl. Christopher Helm, London.

Merkel, F. R. 2004. Impact of hunting and gillnet fishery on wintering eiders in Nuuk, southwest Greenland. Waterbirds 27(4): 469-479.

Poland, J. S., Riddle, M. J., & Zeeb, B. A. 2003. Contaminants in the Arctic and the Antarctic: a comparison of sources, impacts, and remediation options. Polar Records 39(4): 369-383.

Powell, Abby N. and Robert S. Suydam. 2012. King Eider (Somateria spectabilis). In: P. G. Rodewald (ed.), The Birds of North America, Cornell Lab of Ornithology, Ithaca, New York.

Riordan, B., Verbyla, D., & McGuire, A. D. 2006. Shrinking ponds in subarctic Alaska based on 1950–2002 remotely sensed images. Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences 111.

Rothe, T. C., Padding, P. I., Naves, L. C., & Robertson, G. J. 2015. Harvest of sea ducks in North America. Ecology and Conservation of North American Sea Ducks 46: 417.

Sea Duck Joint Venture. 2016. Species Status Summary and Information Needs - Spectacled Eider.

Smith, L. C., Sheng, Y., MacDonald, G. M., & Hinzman, L. D. 2005. Disappearing arctic lakes. Science 308: 1429-1429.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Steinacher M. , Joos, F., Frolicher, T.L., Plattner, G.K., Doney, S.C. 2009. Imminent ocean acidification in the Arctic projected with the NCAR global coupled carbon cycle-climate model. Biogeosciences 6(515-533).

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 2010. Spectacled Eider (Somateria fischeri) 5-Year Review: Summary and Evaluation. Fairbanks Fish and Wildlife Field Office, Fairbanks.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Duck Specialist Group

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Somateria spectabilis. Downloaded from on 25/09/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 25/09/2022.