LC
King Eider Somateria spectabilis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 19,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 45,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.800,000-900,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015), while the population in Russia has been estimated at c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 37,500-45,500 pairs, which equates to 75,000-91,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification:

The overall population trend is decreasing, although one population may be stable and another has unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In North America, the species has undergone a small, statistically insignificant increase, over the last 40 years (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. In Europe, the population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Belarus V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Czech Republic V Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France V Extant
Germany V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Italy V Extant
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan V Extant
Latvia V Extant
Lithuania V Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Spain V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Canada Queen Maud Gulf
Canada Rasmussen Lowlands
Greenland (to Denmark) Aqajarua-Sullorsuaq (Mudderbugten and Kvandalen)
Greenland (to Denmark) Fyllas bank off Nuuk
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland
Greenland (to Denmark) Nordfjord and adjacent valley
Greenland (to Denmark) Northern part of Store Hellefiskebanke
Greenland (to Denmark) Umiiarfik
Greenland (to Denmark) Western part of Germania land
Norway Varangerfjord (including Hornøya and Reinøya)
Russia (Asian) Lena delta
Russia (Asian) Lopatka Peninsula and First Kuril Strait
Russia (Asian) San-Yuryakh
Russia (Asian) Senyavina Strait
Russia (Asian) Terpyey-Tumus
Russia (Asian) West Chaun plain
Russia (Asian) Yana delta
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river
Russia (European) Coastal belt of eastern Murmansk
Russia (European) Khaypudyrskaya Bay (Islands of B. Zelenets, Dolgi, Matveyev)
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra
Russia (European) Terski coast
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Adventdalen & Adventfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordenskiöldkysten
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordre Isfjorden
USA Barrow Canyon & Smith Bay
USA Beaufort Sea Nearshore
USA Cape Senyavin
USA Chukchi Sea Nearshore
USA Eastern Kodiak Island Marine
USA Kvichak Bay
USA Nushagak Bay
USA Nushagak Bay, marine
USA Port Moller-Herendeen Bay

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Somateria spectabilis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/07/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/07/2019.