LC
King Eider Somateria spectabilis



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 19,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 45,600,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 9 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.800,000-900,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015), while the population in Russia has been estimated at c.10,000-100,000 breeding pairs and c.1,000-10,000 wintering individuals (Brazil 2009). The European population is estimated at 37,500-45,500 pairs, which equates to 75,000-91,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification:

The overall population trend is decreasing, although one population may be stable and another has unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). In North America, the species has undergone a small, statistically insignificant increase, over the last 40 years (data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. In Europe, the population trend is unknown (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Belarus V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia V Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Finland N Extant Yes
France V Extant
Germany V Extant
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hungary V Extant
Iceland N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Italy V Extant
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan V Extant
Latvia V Extant
Lithuania V Extant
Netherlands V Extant
Norway N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal V Extant
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Spain V Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes
United Kingdom V Extant
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Greenland (to Denmark) Nordfjord and adjacent valley
Greenland (to Denmark) Aqajarua-Sullorsuaq (Mudderbugten and Kvandalen)
Greenland (to Denmark) Hochstetter Forland
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Russia (European) Khaypudyrskaya Bay (Islands of B. Zelenets, Dolgi, Matveyev)
Russia (European) Bezymyannaya and Gribovaya Bays and adjoining waters
Russia (European) Coastal belt of eastern Murmansk
Russia (European) Torna-Shoina watershed
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra
Greenland (to Denmark) Umiiarfik
Greenland (to Denmark) Western part of Germania land
Norway Vega archipelago
Norway Skogvoll (including Skarvklakken)
Norway Tanamunningen
Norway Varangerfjord
Norway Neiden- & Munkefjord
Norway Hornøy and Reinøy
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Inner parts of Kongsfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordenskiöldkysten
Greenland (to Denmark) Northern part of Store Hellefiskebanke
Greenland (to Denmark) Fyllas bank off Nuuk
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Southeast Svalbard Nature Reserve
Russia (European) Gavrilovski archipelago
Russia (Asian) Lena delta
Russia (Asian) Terpyey-Tumus
Russia (Asian) First Kuril strait
Russia (Asian) West Chaun plain
Russia (Asian) Yana delta
Russia (Asian) San-Yuryakh
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river
Canada Coats Island/Cape Pembroke
Canada Rasmussen Lowlands
Canada Queen Maud Gulf
Canada Creswell Bay
Canada Markham Bay Eider Colony
Canada St. Mary's River Complex (Echo Bay ON to Maxton Bay MI)
Canada West End of Lake Ontario
Canada Cape Henrietta Maria
Canada Netitishi Point
Norway Persfjorden - Hamningberg
Russia (European) Terski coast
USA Cape Peirce
USA Nushagak Bay
USA Kvichak Bay
USA Cape Senyavin
USA Nushagak Bay, marine
USA Port Moller-Herendeen Bay
USA Beaufort Sea Nearshore
USA Barrow Canyon & Smith Bay
USA St Lawrence Island
USA Chukchi Sea Nearshore
USA Eastern Kodiak Island Marine
Norway Varangerfjord (including Hornøya and Reinøya)
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Adventdalen & Adventfjorden
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) Nordre Isfjorden
Russia (Asian) Inchoun and Uelen lagoons
Russia (Asian) Senyavina Strait
Russia (Asian) Lopatka Peninsula and First Kuril Strait

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Energy production & mining Oil & gas drilling Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Garbage & solid waste Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Somateria spectabilis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/09/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/09/2020.