LC
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrinus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Charadrius alexandrinus, C. dealbatus and C. nivosus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as C. alexandrinus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 42 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 70,700,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 101,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-499999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5 - - -

Population justification: The population size has not been estimated following recent taxonomic splits. The European population is estimated at 21,500-34,800 pairs, which equates to 43,100-69,600 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 15% of the global range so a very preliminary estimate of the global population is 290,000-460,000 mature individuals however further validation of this estimate is needed. The population is therefore placed in the band 100,000-499,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is decreasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2006). The European population is estimated to be decreasing by less than 25% in 15 years (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
British Indian Ocean Territory N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the V Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant
Denmark N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Egypt N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon V Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Luxembourg V Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger V Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway V Extant
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes Yes
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland N Extant
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant
Timor-Leste N Extant Yes Yes
Togo N Extant
Tunisia N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda V Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes
Western Sahara N Extant Yes
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Cyprus Larnaca Salt Lakes
Montenegro Ulcinj saltpans
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Azerbaijan Lake Mahmudchala
Cyprus Akhna dam
Portugal Ria de Aveiro
Portugal Tejo estuary
Portugal Ria Formosa (Faro lagoon)
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Pomorie Lake
Romania Lake Taşaul
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Balta Albă - Amara - Jirlău
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre
Slovenia Sečovlje saltpans
Belgium Westkust
Turkey Kocaçay Delta
Turkey Kulu Lake
Turkey Sultan Marsh
Turkey Tuz Lake
Turkey Tuzla lake
Turkey Büyük Menderes Delta
Turkey Acıgöl Lake
Turkey Göksu Delta
Turkey Erçek Lake
Turkey Gediz Delta
Turkey Güllük Bay
Turkey Akyatan Lake
Sweden Falsterbo – Bay of Fote
Poland Vistula river mouth
Greece Evros delta
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Alyki Angelochoriou lagoon (Megalou Emvolou)
Greece Epanomi lagoon
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Southern Mani, mount Sangias and cape Tainaro
Greece Evrotas delta
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Gallikos estuary and Kalochori lagoon
Greece Samothraki island
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Duinen Terschelling
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Wadden Coast
Netherlands Duinen Goeree & Kwade Hoek
Netherlands Haringvliet
Netherlands Krammer-Volkerak
Netherlands Grevelingen
Netherlands Oosterschelde
Netherlands Markiezaat
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Hungary Alkaline pusztas of Upper Kiskunság
Hungary Hódmezővásárhely Pusztas
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Russia (European) Beglitskaya sand-spit
Russia (European) Lake El'ton
Russia (European) Salt lakes in the Primorsko-Akhtarsk area
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Spain Cape Candelaria-Ortigueira estuary-Cape Estaca de Bares
Spain Ampurdán marshes
Spain Ebro delta
Spain River Mijares mouth
Spain Almenara marshes
Spain Albufera de Valencia marshes
Spain El Hondo wetland
Spain Santa Pola salt-pans
Spain Mata and Torrevieja lagoons
Spain Mar Menor coastal lagoon
Spain Mountain range and saltpans at Cabo de Gata
Spain Wetlands of western Almería
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Odiel and Tinto marshes and Huelva coastal lagoons
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Tarifa
Spain Fuente de Piedra, Gosque and Campillos lakes
Spain Salt-pans of Ibiza and Formentera and Freus isles
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Salobrar de Campos Lagoons-Sa Vall
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Spain El Moro marshes
Spain Llobregat delta
Spain Muela mountain range and Cape Tiñoso
Spain River Piedras marshes and Rompido sandbank
Spain El Hito
Spain Janubio saltpans
Spain Plains of La Corona-Las Honduras
Spain Isthmus of Jandía sandy plain
Spain Coast between Corralejo and Tostón
Spain Cuchillete de Buenavista-gully of La Torre-Los Alares
Spain Peninsula of Jandía
Spain Island of Lobos
Spain Sandy plain of Corralejo
Spain Sotavento beach
Spain Coast between Arinaga and Castillo del Romeral
Spain El Médano coast
Ukraine Kryva peninsula
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Kuyal'nyts'kyj lyman
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Jansheijs'ke lake
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Elanchyk river valley
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Lake near Magazinka village
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Pointe de Grave
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Ilôts de Trévorc'h
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Quiberon
France Baie de Goulven
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etang du Bagnas
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Cap Gris-nez
France Camargue
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Basse vallée du Var
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais salants de Noirmoutier
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Po Delta
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Grado and Marano lagoon
Italy Valli di Comacchio and Bonifica del Mezzano
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Italy Ortazzo and Ortazzino
Italy Cervia saltpans
Italy Palude e Tombolo di Bolgheri
Italy Orbetello lagoon and Burano lake
Italy Manfredonia Gulf wetlands
Italy Le Cesine
Italy Tavolara archipelago, Cape Ceraso and Cape Figari
Italy Oristano wetlands
Italy Cagliari wetlands
Italy Stagnone di Marsala and Trapani saltpans
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy Pantani di Vendicari e di Capo Passero
Italy Palmas Gulf wetlands
Italy Coastal stretches from Coghinas river-mouth to Cape Testa
Italy Litorale Romano
Italy Biviere and Plain of Gela
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Denmark Nissum Fjord
Denmark Harboøre Tange, Plet Enge & Gjeller Sø
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Denmark Skallingen and Langli
Denmark Tøndermarsken, Magisterkog and Rudbøl Sø
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Fanø
Georgia Javakheti Plateau
Georgia Kolkheti
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Austria Neusiedler See
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Ems valley between Leer and Emden
Croatia Neretva Delta
Algeria Sebkhet Djendli
Egypt Lake Bardawil
Egypt El Malaha
Egypt Lake Manzala
Egypt Wadi El Natrun
Guinea-Bissau Rio Mansôa and Gêba estuary
Guinea-Bissau Ilha de Bolama - Rio Grande de Buba
Guinea-Bissau Rio Tombali, Rio Cumbijã and Ilha de Melo
Guinea-Bissau Arquipélago dos Bijagós
Libya Benghazi
Morocco Oued Tahadart
Morocco Sebkha Bou Areg
Morocco Sahb al Majnoun
Morocco Zone Humide de Laayoune
Morocco Baie d'Ad Dakhla
Mauritania Banc d'Arguin National Park
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone River Estuary
Senegal Ndiaël basin (including the Trois Marigots)
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Tunisia Sebkhet Kelbia
Tunisia Îles Kneiss
Tunisia Sebkhet Dreiaâ
Tunisia Golfe de Boughrara
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada
Bahrain Tubli Bay
Iraq Shuweicha Marsh
Iraq Razzaza Lake
Iraq Haur Al Sa'adiyah
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of South Caspian shore, from Astara to Gomishan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Voshmigir dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Maharlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Monde Protected Area
Jordan Azraq
Kuwait Ad-Doha Nature Reserve
Kuwait Sulaibikhat Bay
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Ra's as Sawadi - Juzor as Sawadi
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Masirah island
Oman Duqm
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Saudi Arabia Sabkhat al-Fasl lagoons
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Gulf of Salwah
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Beidah
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Yemen Al-Fazzah
Yemen Ta'izz wadis
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Dollart
Germany Rysumer Nacken
Italy Gargano Promontory and Capitanata Wetlands
Italy Sinis and Oristano wetlands
Turkey Saros Bay
Philippines Manila Bay
Vietnam Binh Dai
Taiwan, China Hsinchu City Coastal Area
Taiwan, China Yungan
Japan Banzu and Futtsu tidal flat
Japan Osaka Nanko
Japan Sone tidal flat
China (mainland) Shuangtai (Shuangtaizi) Estuary and Inner Gulf of Liaodong
China (mainland) Ulungur Hu and Jili Hu (Fu Hai)
China (mainland) Bosten Lake
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yueqing Wan
China (mainland) Wenzhou Wan
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island
South Korea Tidal flat area of Yeongjong-do island
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake
South Korea Namyang Bay
South Korea Cheonsu Bay
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Asan Bay (including Asan-ho lake and Sapgyo-ho lake)
South Korea Mangyeong estuary
South Korea Yubu-do island
South Korea Dongjin estuary
South Korea Suncheon Bay
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
Mongolia Airag Lake
Pakistan Rann of Kutch Wildlife Sanctuary
South Korea Baeksu tidal flat
South Korea Hampyeong Bay
South Korea Muan tidal flat
Russia (European) Shabel'skaya sand-spit
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Russia (European) Manych salt lakes
Russia (European) Nizhnekumskiye floods
Turkmenistan Ogurjaly island
Slovenia Škocjan Bay
Kazakhstan Tuzashchy and Karasor Lakes
Croatia NW Dalmatia and Pag Island
Turkey Ceyhan Delta
Romania Dunărea Veche (Braţul Măcin)
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Lake Bugeac
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Cyprus Paralimni Lake
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Oroklini Lake
China (mainland) Shijiu Hu (Jiangsu)
China (mainland) Coastal wetlands of northern Chongming Dao island
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Spain Llano Grande - Malpaís Grande - Malpaís Chico
Cyprus Famagusta Lakes
Myanmar Gulf of Mottama
Turkey Seyhan Delta
Iraq West Hammar
United Arab Emirates Al Wathba
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Taiwan, China Cie Ding Wetland
Kazakhstan Shalkar Lake
Tunisia Salines de Thyna
Taiwan, China Qieding Wetland, Kaohsiung City
Netherlands Delta Coast
China (mainland) Laoting (Daqing He–Shi Jiu Tuo)
United Arab Emirates Al Zora (Khor Ajman)
United Arab Emirates Marawah Island
United Arab Emirates Khor Al Jazirah
Mauritania Chott Boul
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Tuzkol Lake
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Tunisia Côtes de l'Île de Djerba
China (mainland) Luannan coast and saltworks
China (mainland) Huanghua coast (Cangzhou)
China (mainland) Dongsha shoals
China (mainland) Tiaozini (Dongtai coast)
China (mainland) Rudong coast
China (mainland) Dongling coast
China (mainland) Xinghua Bay
China (mainland) Meizhou Bay

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Excavations (open) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Salt Exploitation Sites suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Desert Hot suitable breeding
Desert Hot suitable non-breeding
Desert Temperate suitable breeding
Desert Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent/Irregular Rivers/Streams/Creeks suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Clostridium botulinum Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Domestic & urban waste water - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Charadrius alexandrinus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/04/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 10/04/2020.