Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 163,000,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 168,000,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.3 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number 3,300,000-4,300,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Delany and Scott 2006).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola N Extant Yes
Antarctica N Extant Yes
Argentina N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Barbados N Extant Yes
Bouvet Island (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories N Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Mauritania V Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Panama V Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) V Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Namibia Cape Cross lagoon
Namibia Namib-Naukluft Park
Namibia Mile 4 saltworks
Namibia 30-Kilometre Beach: Walvis - Swakopmund
Namibia Walvis Bay
Namibia Sandwich Harbour
Namibia Lüderitz Bay islands
Namibia Possession Island
Namibia Sperrgebiet
South Africa Orange River Mouth Wetlands
South Africa Algoa Bay Islands: Addo Elephant National Park
South Africa Swartkops Estuary - Redhouse and Chatty Saltpans
South Africa Berg River Estuary
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands
South Africa Dassen Island
South Africa Rietvlei Wetland: Table Bay Nature Reserve
South Africa False Bay Nature Reserve
South Africa Dyer Island Nature Reserve
South Africa Agulhas Plain - Heuningnes Estuary
South Africa Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve
Chile Isla Pájaro Niño
Argentina Complejo Islote Lobos - Punta Pozos
Argentina Comodoro Rivadavia
South Africa Orange river mouth wetlands - marine
Chile Bahía Chilota, Porvenir
Chile Isla Grande de Atacama
Chile Isla Chañaral
Chile Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt - Isla Choros, Damas y Punta de Choros
Chile Islotes Pajaros
Chile Islote Concón
Chile Isla Pájaro Niño de Algarrobo
Chile Monumento Natural Isla Contramaestre
Chile Isla Magdalena National Park
New Zealand Trio Islands
New Zealand Banks Peninsula
New Zealand Banks Peninsula (Church Bay)
New Zealand Banks Peninsula (Mansons Pen; Lyttelton Hrbr)
New Zealand Motunau
New Zealand Lake Ellesmere
New Zealand Poor Knights Islands
New Zealand Forty Fours Motuhara
New Zealand Marotere Chickens Islands
New Zealand Nugget Point
New Zealand Otago Peninsula (Cape Saunders)
New Zealand Open Bay Islands
New Zealand Kapiti Island
New Zealand Northern Titi Muttonbird Islands
New Zealand Port Pegasus
New Zealand Campbell Islands
New Zealand Adams Island
New Zealand Enderby Group
New Zealand Solander Islands
New Zealand Bare Island (Motu-o-Kura)
Chile Desembocadura del Río Cahuil
Chile Isla Santa María
Chile Santuario de la Naturaleza Rocas de Constitución
Antarctica Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island
Argentina Complejo Islote Lobos - Marine
Argentina Comodoro Rivadavia - Marine
Chile Isla Magdalena - Marine
South Africa Alexandria coastal belt / Algoa Bay Island Nature Reserve - Marine
South Africa Bird Island / Dassen Island / Heuningnes river and estuary system / Lower Berg river wetlands - Marine
South Africa Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve - Marine
Namibia Walvis Bay / Cape Cross lagoon / 30-Kilometre Beach: Walvis - Swakopmund - Marine
Namibia Namib-Naukluft Park - Marine
Namibia Sperrgebiet - Marine
Namibia Orange river mouth wetlands - Marine
New Zealand Mokohinau Islands
South Africa Bird Island
New Zealand Waiau River
New Zealand Hurunui River
New Zealand Upper Buller
New Zealand Antipodes Islands
New Zealand Banks Peninsula
New Zealand Bounty Islands
New Zealand Disappointment Island
New Zealand Catlins Coast
New Zealand Mercury Islands
New Zealand Mangere
New Zealand Repanga Cuvier island
New Zealand Rangiauria Pitt Island
New Zealand Rangatira South East Island
New Zealand Raratoka Centre Island
New Zealand Ruamaahua Aldermen Islands
New Zealand Ruapuke
New Zealand Star Keys Motuhope
New Zealand Taranga Hen Island
New Zealand Te Hauturu-o-Toi Little Barrier Island
New Zealand The Pyramid Tarakoikoia
New Zealand Tuku
New Zealand Taiaroa Head
New Zealand North Otago
New Zealand Ashburton River
New Zealand Hopkins Dobson Rivers
New Zealand Moeraki Katiki Point
Argentina Confluencia, desembocadura y adyacencias de los ríos Chico y Santa Cruz
Argentina Complejo Islote Lobos - Marina
Argentina Punta León - Marina
Argentina Boca del Río Gallegos
Argentina Punta Clara - Punta Tombo
Argentina Isla del Puerto
Argentina Islote notable
Argentina Caleta Malaspina
Argentina Isla Quintano
Argentina Banco Cormorán
Argentina Bahía Blanca, Bahía Falsa y Bahía Verde
Argentina Complejo Islote Lobos - Punta Pozos
Argentina Península Valdés, Punta León y Punta Loma
Argentina Punta Tombo
Argentina Bahía Camarones y Norte del Golfo San Jorge
Argentina San Julián
Argentina Bahía Blanca, Bahía Falsa y Bahía Verde
Argentina Punta Tombo
Argentina Bahía Camarones y Norte del Golfo San Jorge

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable resident
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Larus dominicanus. Downloaded from on 24/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/03/2023.