Kelp Gull Larus dominicanus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 163,000,000
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 168,000,000
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2009
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.3 - - -

Population justification: The population is estimated to number 3,300,000-4,300,000 individuals.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is increasing, although some populations have unknown trends (Delany and Scott 2006).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola N Extant Yes
Antarctica N Extant Yes
Argentina N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Barbados N Extant Yes
Bouvet Island (to Norway) N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories N Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Madagascar N Extant Yes
Mauritania V Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Panama V Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Seychelles V Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) V Extant Yes
Trinidad and Tobago V Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Antarctica Byers Peninsula, Livingston Island
Argentina Comodoro Rivadavia
Argentina Complejo Islote Lobos
Chile Isla Chañaral
Chile Isla Grande de Atacama
Chile Isla Magdalena National Park
Chile Isla Pájaro Niño de Algarrobo
Chile Islotes Pajaros
Chile Monumento Natural Isla Contramaestre
Chile Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt - Isla Choros, Damas y Punta de Choros
Namibia 30-Kilometre Beach: Walvis - Swakopmund
Namibia Cape Cross lagoon
Namibia Lüderitz Bay islands
Namibia Mile 4 saltworks
Namibia Namib-Naukluft Park
Namibia Possession Island
Namibia Sandwich Harbour
Namibia Sperrgebiet
Namibia Walvis Bay
South Africa Agulhas Plain - Heuningnes Estuary
South Africa Algoa Bay Islands: Addo Elephant National Park
South Africa Berg River Estuary
South Africa Dassen Island
South Africa Dyer Island Nature Reserve
South Africa False Bay Nature Reserve
South Africa Orange River Mouth Wetlands
South Africa Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve
South Africa Rietvlei Wetland: Table Bay Nature Reserve
South Africa Swartkops Estuary - Redhouse and Chatty Saltpans
South Africa West Coast National Park and Saldanha Bay islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches suitable resident
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable resident
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Larus dominicanus. Downloaded from on 14/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 14/12/2019.