Kakapo Strigops habroptila


Anon. 2016 . A Plan for the Future. Available at: (Accessed: 07/07/2016).

Chatterton, J., Pas, A., Alexander, S., Leech, M., Jakob-Hoff, R., Jensen, B.P. and Digby, A. 2017. Concentrations of calcium and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in plasma of wild kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) living on two islands in New Zealand. New Zealand Veterinary Journal 65(4): 198-203.

Clout, M. N. 2006. A celebration of kakapo: progress in the conservation of an enigmatic parrot. Notornis 53(1): 1-2.

Clout, M.; Merton, D. 1998. Saving the Kakapo: the conservation of the world's most peculiar parrot. Bird Conservation International 8: 281-296.

Clout, M.N., Elliott, G.P. and Robertson, B.C. 2002. Effects of supplementary feeding on the offspring sex ratio of kakapo: a dilemma for the conservation of a polygynous parrot. Biological Conservation 107(1): 13-18.

Collar, N. and Sharpe, C.J. 2014. Kakapo (Strigops habroptila). In: del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A., Sargatal, J., Christie, D.A. and de Juana, E. (eds), Handbook of the Birds of the World Alive, Lynx Edicions, Barcelona.

Collar, N.J.; Butchart, S.H.M. 2013. Conservation breeding and avian diversity: chances and challenges. International Zoo Yearbook 48(1): 7-28.

Cresswell, M. 1996. Kakapo recovery plan 1996-2005. Department of Conservation, Wellington.

Davis, C.E., Bibby, A.H., Buckley, K.M., McNatty, K.P. and Pitman, J.L. 2018. Unique oestrogen receptor ligand-binding domain sequence of native parrots: a possible link between phytoestrogens and breeding success. Reproduction, Fertility and Development 30(2): 262-271.

Department of Conservation. 2017. Current and predicted trends of taxa under management: Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus). Available at: (Accessed: 4th June 2018).

Department of Conservation. 2018. Kakapo Recovery. Available at: (Accessed: 4th June 2018).

Elliott, G.P., Merton, D. V, Jansen, P.W. 2001. Intensive management of a critically endangered species: The kakapo. Biological Conservation 99: 121–133.

Harper, G. A.; Elliott, G. P.; Eason, D. K.; Moorhouse, R. J. 2006. What triggers nesting of Kakapo (Strigops habroptilus)? Notornis 53(1): 160-163.

Higgins, P. J. 1999. Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and Antarctic birds: parrots to dollarbirds. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K.

IUCN. 2001. IUCN Red List categories and criteria: version 3.1. IUCN, Gland & Cambridge.

Jakob-Hoff, R. 2009. Traumatic cloacitis in a kakapo. Kokako 19: 51-52.

Lentini, P.E., Stirnemann, I.A., Stojanovic, D., Worthy, T.H. and Stein, J.A. 2018. Using fossil records to inform reintroduction of the kakapo as a refugee species. Biological Conservation 217: 157-165.

Lloyd, B. D.; Powlesland, R. G. 1994. The decline of Kakapo Strigops habroptilus and attempts at conservation by translocation. Biological Conservation 69: 75-85.

Merton, D. 1998. Kakapo update.

Merton, D. 2009. Kakapo news. PsittaScene 21(3): 18.

Merton, D. V. 2006. The Kakapo: some highlights and lessons from five decades of applied conservation. Journal of Ornithology 147(5): 4.

Merton, D.; Clout, M. 1998. Red Data Bird: Kakapo Strigops habroptilus. World Birdwatch 20: 20-21.

Merton, D.; Clout, M. 1999. Kakapo: back from the brink. Wingspan 9(2): 14-17.

Merton, D.; Reed, C.; Crouchley, D. 1999. Recovery strategies and techniques for three free-living, critically-endangered New Zealand birds: Kakapo Strigops habroptilus, Black Stilt Himantopus novaezelandiae and Takahe Porphyrio mantelli. In: Roth, T.L.; Swanson, W.F.; Blattman, L.K. (ed.), Proceedings 7th world conference on breeding endangered species, pp. 151-162. Cincinnati Zoo and Botanical Garden, Cincinnati.

Powlesland, R. G.; Merton, D. V.; Cockrem, J. F. 2006. A parrot apart: the natural history of the Kakapo (Strigops habroptila), and the context of its conservation management. Notornis 53(1): 3-26.

Raubenheimer, D.; Simpson, S. J. 2006. The challenge of supplementary feeding: can geometric analysis help save the Kakapo? Notornis 53(1): 100-111.

Robertson, H.A., Karika, I. and Saul, E.K. 2006. Translocation of Rarotonga monarchs Pomarea dimidiata within the Southern Cook Islands. Bird Conservation International 16(3): 197-215.

Stone, Z.L., Burns, B., Moorhouse, R. and Clout, M.N. 2017. Kakapo habitat selection on Hauturu-o-toi in relation to plant phenology. New Zealand Journal of Ecology 41(2): 207-217.

von Hurst, P.R., Moorhouse, R.J., Raubenheimer, D. 2016. Preferred natural food of breeding Kakapo is a high value source of calcium and vitamin D. Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology 164: 177-179.

White, D., Hall, R., Jakob-Hoff, R., Wang, J., Jackson, B., Tompkins, D. 2015. Exudative cloacitis in the kakapo (Strigops habroptilus) potentially linked to Escherichia coli infection. New Zealand Veterinary Journal: 1-4.

Further resources

Kakapo Recovery Programme

New Zealand Govt - Dept of Conservation - Recovery Plan - Part 1

New Zealand Govt - Dept of Conservation - Recovery Plan - Part 2

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Strigops habroptila. Downloaded from on 26/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/10/2021.