EN
Kagu Rhynochetos jubatus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A3e+4ad; C2a(i) A3e+4ad; B1ab(ii,v); C2a(i); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Endangered A3e+4ad; C2a(i)
2016 Endangered B1ab(iii,iv)
2013 Endangered B1ab(iii,iv,v);C2a(i)
2012 Endangered B1ab(iii,iv,v);C2a(i)
2008 Endangered B1a+b(ii,iii,iv,v)
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 7,400 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,000
Number of locations 3-5 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250-999 poor suspected 2019
Population trend Decreasing medium inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 3-5 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15 - - -

Population justification: Kagu has a skewed sex ratio, with 42% hatchlings being female (Theuerkauf et al. 2018). Additionally, only about half of all individuals are considered to be mature (J. Theuerkauf in litt. 2018). The proportion of mature individuals is therefore estimated to be 42% (50% multiplied by 84%). 

In Parc des Grandes Fougères, the population was estimated at over 1000 individuals in 2016, based on seven families followed by radiotracking, before the population underwent a reduction when two dogs killed half of all radio-tagged individuals over two months in 2017, resulting in over 75% of Kagu families in the park being destroyed (J. Theuerkauf in litt. 2016, 2018). The population in Parc des Grandes Fougères is therefore suspected to number 250-1,000 individuals.In Parc Provincial Rivière Bleue, 500 individuals were estimated in 2007, with an observed population reduction rate of c.20% every 4 years between 2002 and 2012 (J. Theuerkauf in litt. 2018). The population in Parc Provincial Rivière Bleue is suspected to number 256-500 individuals.

Surveys outside the aforementioned parks have estimated a population size of 491 mature individuals in 1991-1992, and 357 individuals in 2003-2006, but these figures may have been underestimates (Hunt 1996, Y. Létocart and C. Lambert in litt. 1999, J.-M. Mériot in litt. 2007). The population size on the remainder of the island is suspected to fall in the range 95-500 individuals. The total population size is therefore estimated at 601-2,000 individuals (rounded here to 600-2,000 individuals) and 252-840 mature individuals, here placed in the band 250 - 999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The subpopulation in Parc des Grandes Fougères was estimated at over 1,000 individuals in 2016, but 75% of Kagu families in the park were destroyed when two dogs killed half of all radio-tagged individuals over two months in 2017 (J. Theuerkauf in litt. 2016, 2018). In Parc Provincial Rivière Bleue, the population was estimated at 500 birds in 2007, with an observed reduction of c.20% every 4 years between 2002 and 2012 as a result of predation by dogs (J. Theuerkauf in litt. 2018). Trends outside Parc des Grandes Fougère and Parc Provincial Rivière Bleue are not known, but it is suspected that predation by dogs may also be affecting population numbers elsewhere (J. Theuerkauf in litt. 2018). The species is therefore inferred to be undergoing a continuing decline in mature individuals. It is not known whether the overall population size has undergone a reduction over the past three generation, or whether it has undergone short-term declines followed by recoveries. Taking a precautionary approach, the overall rate of decline is placed in the band 50-79% across three generations and this rate of decline is projected to continue into the future.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
New Caledonia (to France) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
New Caledonia (to France) Hautes vallées des rivières Néaoua, Koua et Kouaoua
New Caledonia (to France) Prokoméo
New Caledonia (to France) Pic Ningua
New Caledonia (to France) Mé Maoya
New Caledonia (to France) Massifs du Grand Sud - entre le mont Humboldt et la rivière Bleue
New Caledonia (to France) Massif du Mé Kanin, Sphinx et Arago
New Caledonia (to France) Massif des Lèvres
New Caledonia (to France) Grand Koum
New Caledonia (to France) Goro Jé et haute vallée de la rivière Amoa
New Caledonia (to France) Forêt Plate
New Caledonia (to France) Entre Table Unio et Farino
New Caledonia (to France) Entre les monts Rembaï et Canala
New Caledonia (to France) Goro Até et haute vallée de la rivière Tchamba
New Caledonia (to France) Entre les monts Nakada et Do
New Caledonia (to France) Entre les monts Cidoa et Bwa Bwi
New Caledonia (to France) Dent de Saint-Vincent
New Caledonia (to France) Bwa Opana
New Caledonia (to France) Boulinda
New Caledonia (to France) Aoupinié

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 1400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Canis familiaris Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rusa timorensis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sus domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Fire & fire suppression - Trend Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Rhynochetos jubatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/08/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 09/08/2020.