EN
Junin Grebe Podiceps taczanowskii



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii,iii); D B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii,iii); D1+2

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Endangered B1ab(i,ii,iii)+2ab(i,ii,iii); D
2019 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2016 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2015 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2013 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2012 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2010 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2009 Critically Endangered C2a(ii)
2008 Critically Endangered
2006 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Critically Endangered
1994 Critically Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 140 medium
Number of locations 2-5 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 140-320 medium estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing good suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.9 - - -

Population justification: Different survey methods and identification challenges (such as similarities between Junin and Silvery Grebes; G. Engblom in litt. 2020) have made population estimates difficult. However, surveys between 2007 and 2016 indicate a population of between 217 and 468 individuals (ECOAN 2009, Engblom 2016a, b, Chamorro and Aucca 2017, Chamorro and Aucca 2018, Chamorro et al. 2018, Dinesen et al. 2019).  The latest censuses estimates the population at 373 individuals (Chamorro et al. 2018), with 294 and 359 individuals in 2018 and 2019 respectively (A. Chamorro in litt. 2019). Combined censuses from 2010 to 2018 indicated that the population thus generally fluctuated between 300-400 individuals (Chamorro and Aucca 2019). However, due to high levels of uncertainty, assuming that the population may well go below 300 individuals in certain years, tentatively using a population size of 217-468 individuals, the population is thought to number 145-312 mature individuals, placed in the band of 140-320 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population had undergone rapid declines of c. 80% in the past, leaving around 50 birds by 1993 (Chamorro and Aucca 2019). Trends for this species are unclear due to difficulties in carrying out reliable surveys. It is however now considered that the population had remained stable from the 1970's, through to the 1990's at c. 250-300 individuals (Chamorro and Aucca 2019). It is therefore likely that the species recovered in the early 2000's, and whilst the population has seen subsequent fluctuations (at c. 300-400 individuals between 2010 and 2018; Chamorro and Aucca 2019) and remained small, overall it is likely to have remained stable. However, due to high levels of uncertainty and natural variability of the species (C. A. Chutas in litt. 2020), it is suspected to be undergoing a slow decline over a three generation period (14.7 years; Bird et al. 2020) due to ongoing and potential future threats. 


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Peru N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Peru Lago de Junín

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) major resident
Altitude 4088 - 40890 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Marine & freshwater aquaculture - Industrial aquaculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Other impacts Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Oncorhynchus mykiss Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Dams (size unknown) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Domestic & urban waste water - Sewage Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Seepage from mining Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Podiceps taczanowskii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2021.