Javan Yellownape Chrysophlegma mentale


Justification of Red List Category
This newly split species is listed as Near Threatened because it is estimated to have a moderately small and fragmented population, assumed to exist in small sub-populations and inferred to be in decline owing to limited habitat loss and degradation.

Population justification
The global population size has not been formally quantified, but the species is reported to be uncommon to locally common (del Hoyo et al. 2002). It is preliminarily estimated to approach as few as 10,000 mature individuals, thus it is placed in the band for 10,000-19,999 mature individuals, assumed to equate to c.15,000-30,000 individuals in total. It is assumed that no sub-population numbers more than 1,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification
Much of the remaining forest on Java is protected (M. Lammertink in litt. 2014) and recent analyses have reported stable forest cover on the island during 2000-2012 (Miettinen et al. 2011, Hansen et al. 2013). However, it is precautionarily assumed that limited habitat loss and degradation is driving a slow decline in the population.

Distribution and population

Chrysophlegma mentale is endemic to Java, Indonesia, where it occurs in the west of the island (Winkler et al. 1995, del Hoyo et al. 2002).


This species inhabits primary evergreen or moss forests in lowlands and mountains, particularly wetter areas, favouring dense understorey and large trees (Winkler et al. 1995). Information on the habitat of the species prior to the split indicates that only rarely is it seen in dense and tall secondary growth or in scrub and cultivated land (Winkler et al. 1995). Breeding has been recorded in March (Winkler et al. 1995).


Historically, deforestation on Java has been rapid and extensive, with less than 10% of the land area now covered in closed-canopy forest, of which much is protected (M. Lammertink in litt. 2014). Recent analyses suggest that forest cover was stable on Java during 2000-2012 (Miettinen et al. 2011, Hansen et al. 2013). However, the establishment of plantations and young secondary growth can conceal impacts on primary forest in such analyses. It is precautionarily assumed that logging for timber and fuelwood and agricultural expansion are driving the limited destruction and degradation of primary and mature secondary forest.

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted conservation actions are known for this species, although some of its habitat is protected.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Carry out surveys to quantify the population size. Use remote sensing techniques to monitor land-use change on Java. Increase the area of suitable habitat that receives effective protection.


Text account compilers
Butchart, S., Ekstrom, J., Symes, A. & Taylor, J.

Lammertink, M.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Chrysophlegma mentale. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/04/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/04/2023.