Javan Trogon Apalharpactes reinwardtii


Justification of Red List category
This species is listed as Vulnerable on the basis that its population is small and inferred to be in on-going decline as a result of habitat loss and possible trapping pressures.

Population justification
The population size has been estimated to be as low as a few hundred pairs (Collar and van Balen 2002); however, it is easily overlooked, and there is still extensive forest east of Cibodas/Halimun that remains to be surveyed, thus it may be more common and widespread than recent observations suggest (B. van Balen in litt. 2013). Ornithological surveys across 27 sites on nine mountains in West-Central Java between 2018 and 2020 found the species at 20 sites and 7 mountains with a mean encounter rate of 0.32 groups/hour (C. Devenish, A.R. Junaid and S. Marsden in litt. 2020). It therefore seems likely that considerably more than 250 mature individuals occupy each of the large areas of forest at Gunung Gede and Halimun (C. Robson in litt. 2013). The species's population is therefore placed in the band for 2,500-9,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification
Although much of the population may be present across protected and non-protected areas on Java (A. Ridha in litt 2020), and forest loss has slowed to 1-3% (Tracewski etal. 2016, Global Forest Watch 2020) over three generations (14.4 years; Bird et al. 2020), it is nonetheless suspected to be continuing to decline at a moderate rate, owing to the on-going encroachment of forests by agriculture and urban development, as well as possible trapping pressure (A. A. Supriatna in litt. 2012, N. Brickle in litt 2012, B. van Balen in litt. 2013). Thus, the overall population is considered to be declining at a rate of 1-9% over three generations.

Distribution and population

Apalharpactes reinwardtii is known from seven forested mountains in West Java, Indonesia: Gunung Halimun, Gunung Salak, Gunung Gede-Pangrango, Gunung Patuha-Tilu, Gunung Wayang, Gunung Papandayan and Ciwidey. There are only recent records from four of these (Halimun, Salak, Gede-Pangrango and Ciwidey), but it has also been recently reported from Mt. Slamet and Mt. Merapi (B. van Balen in litt. 2016), which would represent a considerable range extension. Most recent surveys also confirm this species to be present in Gunung Cikuray and Gunung Limbung (Garut) (A. Ridha in litt. 2020). Its presence is also considered to be fairly common in Kencana and Masigit (A. Ridha in litt. 2020). Although it has been stated to occur at 800-2,600 m, little forest remains below 1,000 m away from Halimun, and the species appears to be rarer at higher elevations. The species appears to also be common is Gunung Halimun, and is frequently encountered on the main track at Gunung Gede-Pangrango. The population size of this species may be as low as a few hundred pairs (Collar and van Balen 2002), however the unusual vocalisation is easy to overlook and the species can be cryptic (C. Robson in litt. 2016). Minimal exploration of the species further makes its presence difficult to monitor (A. Ridha in litt 2020). 


It appears to favour mid to high-montane forest, where it feeds on a variety of invertebrates taken by aerial sallying or by perch-gleaning. It also feeds on fruit and will occasionally join mixed-species flocks (del Hoyo et al. 2001).


Forest loss, degradation and fragmentation, through widespread agricultural encroachment and localised development (e.g. holiday resorts and geothermal projects), are on-going threats in the species's altitudinal range. Recent forest analyses across West Java, representing much of the species's range found that its suitable habitat (intermediary-elevation montane forests) is likely fragmented and isolated, whilst remaining lowland forests cover only 5,234 km2 of monitored area (Higginbottom et al. 2019). Forest loss alone is however thought to have minimised in the post-2000 era (Higginbottom et al. 2019). The species may however also suffer limited trapping pressure (A. A. Supriatna in litt. 2012, B. van Balen in litt. 2013), but this is considered rare, with the species thought not be specifically targeted (N. Brickle in litt 2012).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
The species has been recorded in Gunung Halimun and Gunung Gede-Pangrango National Parks.

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct further surveys for the species at all mountains and areas potentially within its range to clarify its current distribution and population status. Propose key sites for designation as protected areas, or as extensions to existing reserves. Work with local authorities and relevant companies to minimise the impact of tourism and development projects on forested mountains within its range.


34 cm. A striking green and yellow trogon. Upperparts green, except for a blue tail. Underparts largely yellow with a green breast band. The bill is red and the naked skin around the eye is blue. Voice A dry, high rattling "sterrrr".


Text account compilers
Martin, R., Fernando, E.

Allinson, T, Benstead, P., Bird, J., Brickle, N., Devenish, C., Iqbal, M., Junaid, A., Marsden, S., Ridha, A., Robson, C., Supriatna, A., Symes, A., Taylor, J. & van Balen, B.S.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Apalharpactes reinwardtii. Downloaded from on 01/10/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 01/10/2023.