Javan Trogon Apalharpactes reinwardtii


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Vulnerable C2a(i)
2016 Vulnerable C2a(i)
2014 Vulnerable C2a(i)
2012 Endangered C2a(i)
2008 Endangered C2a(i)
2004 Endangered
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,300 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 2500-9999 poor estimated 2014
Population trend decreasing poor inferred 2010-2024
Decline % (10 years/3 generations future) 1-9 - - -
Decline % (10 years/3 generations past and future) 1-9 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (years) 4.8 - - -

Population justification: The population size has been estimated to be as low as a few hundred pairs (Collar and van Balen 2002); however, it is easily overlooked, and there is still extensive forest east of Cibodas/Halimun that remains to be surveyed, thus it may be more common and widespread than recent observations suggest (B. van Balen in litt. 2013). Ornithological surveys across 27 sites on nine mountains in West-Central Java between 2018 and 2020 found the species at 20 sites and 7 mountains with a mean encounter rate of 0.32 groups/hour (C. Devenish, A.R. Junaid and S. Marsden in litt. 2020). It therefore seems likely that considerably more than 250 mature individuals occupy each of the large areas of forest at Gunung Gede and Halimun (C. Robson in litt. 2013). The species's population is therefore placed in the band for 2,500-9,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Although much of the population may be present across protected and non-protected areas on Java (A. Ridha in litt 2020), and forest loss has slowed to 1-3% (Tracewski etal. 2016, Global Forest Watch 2020) over three generations (14.4 years; Bird et al. 2020), it is nonetheless suspected to be continuing to decline at a moderate rate, owing to the on-going encroachment of forests by agriculture and urban development, as well as possible trapping pressure (A. A. Supriatna in litt. 2012, N. Brickle in litt 2012, B. van Balen in litt. 2013). Thus, the overall population is considered to be declining at a rate of 1-9% over three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Indonesia Gunung Halimun
Indonesia Gunung Gede - Pangrango
Indonesia Gunung Masigit-Kareumbi
Indonesia Gunung Papandayan-Kamojang
Indonesia Gunung Tilu-Simpang
Indonesia Gunung Salak
Indonesia Telaga Warna-Cibulao

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 900 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Negligible declines No/Negligible Impact: 2
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Tourism & recreation areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Apalharpactes reinwardtii. Downloaded from on 24/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 24/09/2023.