Gracupica contra and G. jalla (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) were previously lumped as Sturnus contra following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
|A2bd+3bd+4bd; C2a(i,ii); D||A2bd+3bd+4bd; C2a(i,ii); D||A2bd+3bd+4bd; B1ab(iv,v); C2a(i,ii); D1|
|2016||Critically Endangered||A2bd+3bd+4bd; C2a(i,ii); D|
|Migratory status||not a migrant||Forest dependency||Does not normally occur in forest|
|Land mass type||Average mass||-|
|Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2)||12,400|
|Number of locations||2-10||-|
|Value||Data quality||Derivation||Year of estimate|
|No. of mature individuals||1-49||poor||suspected||2016|
|Decline (3 years/1 generation past)||-||-||-|
|Decline (5 years/1 generation past)||-||-||-|
|Decline (10 years/1 generation past)||-||-||-|
|Decline (10 years/3 generation future)||80-100||-||-||-|
|Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future)||80-100||-||-||-|
|Number of subpopulations||2||-||-||-|
|Percentage in largest subpopulation||1-89||-||-||-|
|Generation length (yrs)||4.4||-||-||-|
Population justification: The newly split species has almost completely disappeared from the wild within the past few decades, a decline that has gone largely unnoticed due to the species previously being included with the widespread G. contra. Wild populations are thought to have gone extinct on Sumatra sometime between 1990 and 2000, had been reduced by 2010 to a tiny remnant in a remote area of central Java (known from trapped birds) and a small population on Bali that may be derived from escapes (Eaton et al. 2015).
Trend justification: The wild population on Java may have been lost within the past few years, with recent records appearing to relate to small numbers of escaped or released birds. The large numbers being supplied to the market by commercial breeders are not readily distinguished from wild-sourced birds as the practice of using closed rings is very rare and not enforced at the point of sale (S. Chng in litt. 2016).
|Habitat (level 1)||Habitat (level 2)||Importance||Occurrence|
|Artificial/Aquatic & Marine||Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas||suitable||resident|
|Altitude||Occasional altitudinal limits|
|Threat (level 1)||Threat (level 2)||Impact and Stresses|
|Biological resource use||Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target)||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Ongoing||Whole (>90%)||Very Rapid Declines||High Impact: 9|
|Pollution||Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides||Timing||Scope||Severity||Impact|
|Purpose||Primary form used||Life stage used||Source||Scale||Level||Timing|
|Food - human||-||-||Non-trivial||Recent|
|Pets/display animals, horticulture||-||-||Non-trivial||Recent|
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Gracupica jalla. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/10/2021.