Javan Pied Starling Gracupica jalla


Taxonomic note
Gracupica contra and G. jalla (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) were previously lumped as Sturnus contra following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A2bd+3bd+4bd; C2a(i,ii); D A2bd+3bd+4bd; C2a(i,ii); D A2bd+3bd+4bd; B1ab(iv,v); C2a(i,ii); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Critically Endangered A2bd+3bd+4bd; C2a(i,ii); D
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 12,400
Number of locations 2-10 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1-49 poor suspected 2016
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 80-100 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 80-100 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.4 - - -

Population justification: The newly split species has almost completely disappeared from the wild within the past few decades, a decline that has gone largely unnoticed due to the species previously being included with the widespread G. contra. Wild populations are thought to have gone extinct on Sumatra sometime between 1990 and 2000, had been reduced by 2010 to a tiny remnant in a remote area of central Java (known from trapped birds) and a small population on Bali that may be derived from escapes (Eaton et al. 2015).

Trend justification: The wild population on Java may have been lost within the past few years, with recent records appearing to relate to small numbers of escaped or released birds. The large numbers being supplied to the market by commercial breeders are not readily distinguished from wild-sourced birds as the practice of using closed rings is very rare and not enforced at the point of sale (S. Chng in litt. 2016).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 9
Species disturbance, Hybridisation, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Gracupica jalla. Downloaded from on 22/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/10/2021.