Javan Myna Acridotheres javanicus


Taxonomic note
Acridotheres grandis and A. javanicus (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) were previously lumped as A. grandis following Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2d+3d+4d

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2d+3d+4d
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 184,000
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 poor suspected 2016
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 3.9 - - -

Population justification: The population size is preliminarily estimated to fall in the band 2,500-9,999 mature individuals. based on the recent records for wild populations within Java and Bali. Introduced populations are considerably larger. In Singapore, although there have been fluctuations, the population was estimated as 168,000 individuals in 2000 (Yap 2003) and in Taiwan an estimate of over 20,000 was made in 1999 (Lin Rueyshing 2001).

Trend justification: Within the native wild range of the species the population has declined rapidly within the recent past to the point where this formerly abundant bird is very infrequently seen, and many recent records appear to derive from escaped captive birds (Eaton et al. 2015). Very large numbers have previously been trapped within the native range to supply the cage bird trade (Chng et al. 2015). The emergence of bird-farms to supply the market within the last few years, which are now the source of many traded individuals (Burung Indonesia in litt. 2016), appears to be a response to supply problems and coincided with the sudden difficulty of observing the species in the wild on Java. Supply from wild-caught birds is continuing as evidenced by the recent seizures of illegally traded birds coming into Java from Kalimantan and Sumatra (S. Chng in litt. 2016), which are considered to come from the large introduced populations of the species outside of the native range.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Japan I Possibly Extant Yes
Malaysia I Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) I Extant Yes
Singapore I Extant Yes
Thailand I Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland major resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Species disturbance, Hybridisation, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Acridotheres javanicus. Downloaded from on 19/09/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 19/09/2018.