Javan Leafbird Chloropsis cochinchinensis


Taxonomic note

Chloropsis cochinchinensis and C. moluccensis (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) were previously lumped as C. cochinchinensis following Wells et al. (2003).


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2d+3d+4d A2d+3d+4d

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Endangered A2d+3d+4d
2016 Near Threatened A2d+3d+4d
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass 24 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 142,000
Number of locations 1-6 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 0
Population trend Decreasing inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -

Population justification: The population size is unknown, but the species has been considered rare for some time (Wells 2016). More recently it has been only infrequently observed at sites where it was easy to see in the recent past (Eaton in litt. 2016), or indeed has completely disappeared (S. van Balen in litt. 2019).

Trend justification: The population is suspected to be undergoing a very rapid decline owing to capture for the cage bird trade, which may be exacerbated by past habitat loss greatly reducing the area of suitable habitat. The entire range is considered accessible to trappers and the species is assessed as being in high demand for the cagebird trade (Symes et al. 2018). Leafbird species experienced a surge in popularity as cagebirds after 2012, with all species becoming more desirable and numbers being sold increasing rapidly. Initial reports from repeated visits to sites where the species was commonly seen in the late 1990s are that the species has disappeared or is now very scarce (B. van Balen in litt. 2019). Expert opinion from the IUCN SSC Asian Songbird Trade Specialist Group (ASTSG in litt. 2018) considers that the current suspected rate of decline in the species exceeds 50% and, in the absence of any expectation of a reduction in market demand or restriction on trapping activity, is expected to continue at this very rapid rate.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Altitude 100 - 1800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines High Impact: 8
Species disturbance, Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Chloropsis cochinchinensis. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/06/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/06/2021.