CR
Javan Green Magpie Cissa thalassina



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
van Balen, S.; Eaton, J. A.; Rheindt, F. E. 2013. Biology, taxonomy and conservation status of the Short-tailed Green Magpie Cissa [t.] thalassina from Java. Bird Conservation International 23(1): 91-109.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
C2a(i) A2cd+4cd; C2a(i); D A2cd+4cd; C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2016 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2015 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2013 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
2012 Critically Endangered C2a(i)
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 41,200
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 50-249 poor estimated 2011
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.7 - - -

Population justification: The species appears to have an extremely small population, which is likely to number fewer than 250 mature individuals, with each subpopulation probably containing 50 mature individuals or fewer (van Balen et al. 2011). It has also been suggested that the total population probably does not exceed 100 individuals, but could number fewer than 50 individuals, as there may be only one or two dozen birds at each site where the species may still be extant (van Balen et al. 2013); however, surveys should be conducted to confirm whether this is the case.

Trend justification: The species underwent an extremely rapid decline during the late 1990s and first part of the 2000s as a result of the cagebird trade (van Balen et al. 2013). Prior to 1990, Javan Green Magpies were observed erratically and in small numbers in trade: none were recorded among 150,000 birds in a market in Jakarta in 1989 (Basuni and Setiyani 1989). By 1992, 25 of 39 market surveys recorded the species and 320 individuals were authorised for export between August and December 1992 (Nash 1993). Many individuals were reported trapped from Halimun in the 1990s, with bird trappers specialising in the species (van Balen et al. 2013). By 2011, numbers in the markets had crashed and prices had rocketed, suggesting that the stock had already depleted.
The rate of decline for the period between 1990 and 2010 is believed to have exceeded 80%, a decline driven almost exclusively by trapping (van Balen et al. 2013, Eaton et al. 2015). Since this point, actual rates of decline are likely lower than at the peak of exploitation, as the population is at such a low base. However, there is no disincentive for trappers not to catch this species should they be fortunate and find some. Trapping pressure remains high on Java, hence declines are believed to be ongoing at a rapid rate. On this basis, the population is suspected to have undergone a decline of 50-79% over the past three generations, and is expected to decline by 30-49% over the next three generations, owing primarily to trapping wherever it does remain.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Indonesia N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 500 - 2000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Cissa thalassina. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/10/2021.