Justification of Red List Category
This recently-split kingfisher is largely restricted to rivers in lowland forest and, as such, is suspected to be undergoing a continuing population decline as a result of significant losses in the extent of this habitat throughout its range. There are very few recent records, and it is precautionarily inferred that any remaining subpopulations are extremely small and declining. It has therefore been listed as Critically Endangered, however there remains a possibility it has been under-recorded, and if it is found to be more numerous than is currently feared it may warrant downlisting in future.
Given the lack of recent records, any remaining population is precautionarily inferred to be extremely small, and a preliminary estimate places the population in the band 50-249 mature individuals.
Rates of forest loss in Java have been rapid and are continuing, hence the population is suspected to be declining rapidly as a result.
The species is endemic to Java, Indonesia, where apparently there are only a very limited number of confirmed records since the 1930s. These include two reports of individuals seen in Gunung Halimun National Park in June 2009 (Birdlife International 2001, B. Cox in litt. 2009), and further sightings within the same area in August 2014 (S. Cooleman in litt. 2014). There are also other potential records from from Kondang Merak, south Malang (H. Cahyono per B. van Balen in litt. 2016), and from Wonosalem, East Java, in July 1995 (B. van Balen in litt. 2016), but it was not seen during recent visits to the area (H. Cahyono per B. van Balen in litt. 2016). It may be under-recorded owing to its shy behaviour and often remote habitat (B. van Balen in litt. 2012).
It is generally sedentary on rocky or slow-flowing streams and larger rivers running through forest (usually humid evergreen, but also back-mangroves and mixed dipterocarp-dominated forest), most commonly in the lowlands, but ascending locally to 1,500 m (Fry and Fry 1999, del Hoyo et al. 2001). It is predominantly piscivorous, also consuming crustaceans, insects and small reptiles (Fry and Fry 1999, del Hoyo et al. 2001). Breeding has been recorded in March-April (Fry and Fry 1999).
The burgeoning human population on Java brings with it intense pressure on natural resources, one aspect of which has been a massive reduction in forest cover, particularly in the lowlands. This threat continues in the form of conversion to agriculture, development and uncontrolled fire, even within protected areas.
Conservation Actions Underway
The species has been recorded within Gunung Halimun National Park, Java (D. L. Yong in litt. 2013).
Conservation Actions Proposed
Urgently clarify its current distribution and population status, making the species a key target during surveys, and increasing the focus on hill forest and lower montane areas. As and when extant populations are found, research its range and ecological requirements. Lobby for effective management of existing protected areas and for the expansion of the protected area network, focusing particularly on eastern Javan sites (B. van Balen in litt. 2016).
17 cm. Robust, medium-sized river kingfisher. Dark blackish upperparts with silvery-azure streak from mantle to rump. Long, white neck-flash with rufous tip. White throat becoming yellow-buff on the sides; rest of underparts mostly pale yellow-buff in male and orange in female. Both sexes show a solid blue band across chest. Similar spp. A. peninsulae of Borneo, Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia is whiter below and the pale blue breast band in the male is mottled white, while the female shows no breast band and is a brighter orange below. Common Kingfisher A. atthis smaller, greenish-blue above, lacking breast-band. Voice. High-pitched squeaks in flight, harsher than A. atthis.
Text account compilers
Bird, J., Symes, A., Ashpole, J, Westrip, J., Tobias, J., Benstead, P., Martin, R., Taylor, J.
Aik, Y.C., Cahyono, H., Cooleman, S., Cox, B., Davison, G., Yong, D. & van Balen, B.S.
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Alcedo euryzona. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/02/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/02/2023.