EN
Java Sparrow Lonchura oryzivora



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Lonchura oryzivora (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Padda following AOU (1998 & supplements); Christidis & Boles (2008); Dowsett & Forbes-Watson (1993); SACC (2005 & updates); Sibley & Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(i) C2a(i)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Endangered C2a(i)
2018 Endangered C2a(i)
2016 Vulnerable A2bde+3bde+4bde
2012 Vulnerable A2bde+3bde+4bde
2008 Vulnerable A2b,d,e; A3b,d,e; A4b,d,e; C1
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass 25 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 148,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000-2499 poor estimated 2008
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -

Population justification: The number of individuals has been estimated for about half of the global distribution, the central and eastern Java populations. These number 299-889 individuals, most likely not exceeding 1,000 individuals (Yuda 2008). Even though the potentially larger subpopulation on Bali is not included in this estimate, it is very likely that the global population does not exceed 1,500-3,750 individuals in total. The population size is therefore placed in the band of 1,000-2,499 mature individuals. Throughout its range, the population is highly fragmented.

Trend justification: A rapid and on-going population decline is inferred on the basis of trapping pressure from the Asian songbird trade. The rate of the reduction is suspected to have been very rapid for a time between the 1960s and 1980s (BirdLife International 2001), and the species disappeared from many previously occupied sites during this period. Muchtar and Nurwatha (2001) revisited 64 known sites, finding the species still present at only 17. In Yogyarkarta province, surveys in 2017-18 of previously occupied sites revealed the loss of the species from 9/14 sites, several of which held the species at least as recently as 2005 (Rosyadi et al. 2019).

Yuda (2008) estimated that 38% of adults had been trapped in both 2004 and 2005 in central and eastern Java, a rate considered sufficient to drive rapid population reductions despite the species reasonably high fecundity. On Bali, rates of trapping are uncertain, as are the trends in trapping across the range. Many are bred in captivity and this makes estimating the scale and impact of trapping from the wild population highly uncertain. It is inferred that the current rates are sufficient to be driving a continuing population decline, but the rate of this decline is presently unknown.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Brunei I Extant Yes
Christmas Island (to Australia) I Extant Yes
Fiji I Extant Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Malaysia I Extant Yes
Mexico I Extant Yes
Philippines I Extant Yes
Puerto Rico (to USA) I Extant Yes
Sri Lanka I Extant Yes
USA I Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 500 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 1500 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Passer montanus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Lonchura oryzivora. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/07/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/07/2022.