VU
Japanese Murrelet Synthliboramphus wumizusume



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2cde+3cde+4cde; C2a(ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde+4cde;C2a(ii)
2012 Vulnerable A2cde+3cde+4cde;C2a(ii)
2010 Vulnerable A2c,d,e; A3c,d,e; A4c,d,e; C2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable A2d,e; A3d,e; A4d,e; C2a(ii)
2007 Vulnerable
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,310,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,580,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 110 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 2500-9999 medium estimated 2000
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12.1 - - -

Population justification: By 2015, 38 colonies (current and historical) were reported, with a total estimated population of 2,600-4,700 pairs (Otsuki and Nakamura 2016), equating to  around 3,500-10,000 individuals. National population sizes have been estimated at < c.100 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 individuals on migration in Korea and c.100-10,000 breeding pairs and c.50-1,000 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: Populations are thought to be declining rapidly through the combined impact of predation by introduced rats, disturbance of breeding sites and adult mortality in fishing nets.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Japan N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant Yes
Taiwan (China) V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Japan Birojima islet
Japan Birojima islet - Marine
Japan Danjo islands
Japan Danjo islands - Marine
Japan Eboshijima islet
Japan Eboshijima islet / Hakata bay / Okinoshima islets - Marine
Japan Hachijojima island
Japan Hachijojima island - Marine
Japan Kanmurijima and Kutsujima islets
Japan Kanmurijima and Kutsujima islets - Marine
Japan Kii Nagashima islets
Japan Kozushima island
Japan Kozushima island / Kozushima island (Onbasejima) - Marine
Japan Mikurajima island
Japan Mikurajima island - Marine
Japan Miyakejima island
Japan Miyakejima island (Onoharajima) - Marine
Japan Nanatsujima islets
Japan Nanatsujima islets - Marine
Japan Niijima and Shikinejima Islands
Japan Okinoshima and Koyajima islets
Japan Seinan islands
Japan Seinan islands - Marine
Japan Torishima island
Japan Torishima island / sta_izs_pg_2 - Marine
Japan Tsukuejima islets
South Korea Chilbal-do island
South Korea Kukul-do island

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable resident
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) suitable non-breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Geological events Volcanoes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Synthliboramphus wumizusume. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/11/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/11/2017.