Justification of Red List Category
Deforestation has been extensive throughout this species's range; it is therefore suspected to have undergone a moderately rapid population reduction and is consequently classified as Near Threatened. The species is not regarded as more threatened because it tolerates secondary growth and ranges into montane areas where forest is less threatened.
The global population size has not been quantified, but the species is described as generally uncommon, although locally and seasonally common and very rare in Java (Gibbs et al. 2001).
The species is suspected to be declining at a moderately rapid rate, owing primarily to habitat loss and degradation, as well as hunting pressure.
Ramphiculus jambu is confined to the Sundaic lowlands, from peninsular Thailand, Sabah, Sarawak and Peninsular Malaysia, Singapore (scarce and irregular non-breeding visitor), Kalimantan, Sumatra and West Java, Indonesia and Brunei (BirdLife International 2001).
This frugivorous species inhabits evergreen and mangrove forests to c.1,600 m (Gibbs et al. 2001). It is known to take fallen fruits from the ground as well as directly from branches. Seasonal and fruiting-related movements have been noted. Breeding takes place from November to February and in July (Gibbs et al. 2001).
Forest destruction in the Sundaic lowlands of Indonesia and Malaysia has been extensive (Kalimantan lost nearly 25% of its evergreen forest during 1985-1997, and Sumatra lost almost 30% of its 1985 cover), because of a variety of factors. These include the escalation of logging and land conversion, with deliberate targeting of all remaining stands of valuable timber including those inside protected areas, plus forest fires (particularly in 1997-1998). Declines as a result of forest loss may be being compounded by trapping for the cage-bird industry. However, the species's use of secondary growth and higher elevations implies that it is not immediately threatened.
Conservation Actions Underway
No targeted in situ conservation actions are known of, although the species occurs in a number of protected areas and will benefit from reforestation projects and efforts to increase the coverage of protected areas. The species has been kept in zoos affiliated to the Association of Zoos and Aquariums since the early 1980s, with 22 of these institutions currently holding birds, although successful breeding is currently only achieved by a few captive pairs (J. Pribble in litt. 2009).
Text account compilers
Mahood, S., Benstead, P., Taylor, J., Westrip, J.
Pribble, J., Hutchinson, R.
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Ramphiculus jambu. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/05/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 30/05/2020.