Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea


Bangjord, G., Korshavn, R., Nikiforov, V. 1994. Fauna at Troynoy and influence of polar stations on nature reserve. Izvestija TsIK, Kara Sea, July 1994. Working report. Klaebu: Norwegian Ornithological Society Report 3 : 1-55.

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Boertmann D., Olsen K., Gilg O. 2012. Ivory gulls breeding on ice. Polar Record 46 : 86-88.

Bond, A.L., Hobson, K.A. and Branfireun, B.A. 2015. Rapidly increasing methyl mercury in endangered ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) feathers over a 130 year record. Proceedings of the Royal Society 282(1805).

Braune, B.M., Mallory, M.L. and Gilchrist, H.G. 2006. Elevated mercury levels in a declining population of ivory gulls in the Canadian Arctic. Marine Pollution Bulletin 52(8): 978-982.

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Divoky, G.J. 1976. The pelagic feeding habits of Ivory and Ross's gulls . Condor 3(78): 229-243.

Eamer, J., Donaldson, G.M., Gaston, A.J., Kosobokova, K.N., arusson, K.F., Melnikov, I.A., Reist, J.D., Richardson, E., Staples, L., von Quillfeldt, C.H. 2013. Life Linked to Ice: A guide to sea-ice-associated biodiversity in this time of rapid change. . CAFF Assessment Series No. 10. Conservation of Arctic Flora and Fauna, Iceland.

Frisch T., Morgan W.C. 1979. Ivory Gull colonies in southeastern Ellesmere Island, Arctic Canada . Canadian Field-Naturalist 93: 173–174.

Gavrilo, M.V. 2009. Breeding distribution of the ivory gull in Russian Arctic: difficulties when studying range of a rare and sporadically breeding high arctic species. Problemy Arktiki and Antarktiki 83 (3): 127 - 151.

Gavrilo, M.V. 2011a. The Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea in the Russian Arctic: peculiarities of species’ breeding within the current optimum of its range. . PhD Thesis. Saint-Petersburg: 280 p.

Gavrilo, M.V. 2011b. The breeding habitats of the Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea in the Russian Arctic Collection of papers of the Menzbier Ornithological Society Vol. I. Materials of the XIII International Ornithological Conference of Northern Eurasia, . Makhachkala: ALEF. P.: 273 – 287.

Gilchrist, G., Strøm, A., Gavrillo, M.V. and Mosbech, A. 2008. International Ivory Gull conservation strategy and action plan. CAFF Technical Report No. 18. CAFF International Secretariat, Circumpolar Seabird Group (CBird).

Gilchrist, H. G.; Mallory, M. L. 2005. Declines in abundance and distribution of the ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea) in Arctic Canada. Biological Conservation 121: 303-309.

Gilg, O., Strøm, H., Aebischer, A., Gavrilo, M. V., Volkov, A. E., Miljeteig, C. and Sabard, B. 2010. Post-breeding movements of northeast Atlantic ivory gull Pagophila eburnea populations. Journal of Avian Biolog 41: 532–542.

Gilg, O.; Boertmann, D.; Merkel, F.; Aebischer, A.; Sabard, B. 2009. Status of the endangered Ivory Gull, Pagophila eburnea, in Greenland. Polar Biology 32: 1275-1286.

Hamilton, C.D., Kovacs, K.M., Ims, R.A., Aars, J., Strøm, H., Lydersen, C. 2017. Spatial overlap among an Arctic predator, prey and scavenger in the marginal ice zone. Marine Ecology Progress Series 573: 45-59.

Hess, P. 2004. Ivory gull in trouble. Birding 36: 126-127.

Joiris, C.R. 2017. Drastic decrease in high Arctic gulls—ivory Pagophila eburnea and Ross’s Rhodostethia rosea—density in the northern Greenland Sea and Fram Strait between 1988 and 2014. Polar Biology 40: 1029-1034.

Karnovsky, N.K., Hobson, K.A., Brown, Z.W., Hunt, G.L. 2009. Distribution and Diet of Ivory Gulls (Pagophila eburnea) in the North Water Polynya. ARCTIC V 62(1): 65–74.

Kristoffersen, S. 1926. Iakttagelser over fugletivet ved Hornsund, Svalbard, fra hosten 1923 til varen 1924. . Norsk. Orn. Tidsskr. 7.

Lucia, M., Storm H., Bustamante, P., Gabrielsen, G.W. 2016. Trace Element Concentrations in Relation to the Trophic Behaviour of Endangered Ivory Gulls (Pagophila eburnea) During Their Stay at a Breeding Site in Svalbard. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 71: 518-529.

Lucia, M., Storm H., Bustamante, P., Gabrielsen, G.W. 2016. Trace Element Concentrations in Relation to the Trophic Behaviour of Endangered Ivory Gulls (Pagophila eburnea) During Their Stay at a Breeding Site in Svalbard. Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 71: 518-529.

Lucia, M., Verboven, N., Strøm, H., Miljeteig, C., Gavrilo, M.V., Braune, B.M., Boertmann, D., Gabrielsen, G.W. 2015. Circumpolar contamination in eggs of the high-Arctic ivory gull Pagophila eburnea. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 34(7): 1552-1561.

Lydersen, C., Assmy, P., Falk-Petersen, S., Kohler J., Kovacs, K.M., Reigstad, M., Steen, H., Strøm, H., Sundfjord, A., Varpe, Ø., Walczowski, W., Weslawski, J.M. and Zajaczkowski, M. 2014. The importance of tidewater glaciers for marine mammals and seabirds in Svalbard, Norway. Journal of Marine Systems 129: 452-471.

MacDonald, S.D. 1976. Phantoms of the pack ice. Audubon 3(78): 3-19.

MacDonald, S.D., Macpherson, A.H. 1962. Breeding place of the Ivory Gull in Arctic Canada. National Museum Canada Bulletin.

Mallory, M., Stenhouse, I., Gilchrist, H,, Robertson, G., Haney, C., MacDonald, S. 2008. Ivory gull (Pagophila eburnea). In: Poole A (ed) The birds of North America online. Cornell lab of Ornithology, Ithaca. http: //bna.birds. cornell. edu/bna/ species/175.

Miljeteig, C., Gabrielsen, G. W., Strøm, H., Gavrilo, M. V., Lie, E., Jenssen, B. M. 2012. Eggshell thinning and decreased concentrations of vitamin E are associated with contaminants in eggs of ivory gulls. Science of the Total Environment 431: 92–99.

Miljeteig, C., Strøm, H., Gavrilo, M. V., Volkov, A., Jenssen, B.M. and Gabrielsen, G.W. 2009. High levels of contaminants in ivory gull Pagophila eburnea eggs from the Russian and Norwegian Arctic. Environmental Science & Technology 43(14): 5521-5528.

Nachtsheim, D.A., Joiris, C.R., D’Hert D. 2016. A gravel-covered iceberg provides an offshore breeding site for ivory gulls Pagophila eburnea off Northeast Greenland. Polar Biology 39 : 755-758.

Olsen, K. M.; Larsson, H. 2003. Gulls of Europe, Asia and North America. Christopher Helm, London.

Orr, C. D.; Parsons, J. L. 1982. Ivory Gulls Pagophila eburnea, and ice-edges in Davis Strait and the Labrador Sea. Canadian Field-Naturalist 96: 323-328.

Renaud, W.E., McLaren, P.L. 1982. Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea) distribution in late summer and autumn in eastern Lancaster Sound and western Baffin Bay. Arctic 35: 141–148.

Robertson, G.J., Gilchrist, H.G., Mallory, M.L. 2007. Colony Dynamics and Persistence of Ivory Gull Breeding in Canada. Avian Conservation and Ecology 2(2): 8.

Snow, D.W.; Perrins, C.M. 1998. The Birds of the Western Palearctic, Volume 1: Non-Passerines. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Spencer, N. C., Gilchrist, H. G., Strøm, H., Allard, K. A., Mallory, M. L. 2016. Key winter habitat of the ivory gull Pagophila eburnea in the Canadian Arctic. Endangered Species Research 31: 33-45.

Spencer, N., Gilchrist, G., Mallory, M. 2014. Annual movement patterns of endangered ivory gulls: the importance of sea ice. PLoS One 9(12): e115231.

Stenhouse, I. J., Robertson, G. J., Gilchrist, H. G. 2004a. Recoveries and survival rate of ivory gulls banded in Nunavut, Canada, 1971–1999. Waterbirds 27(4): 486-492.

Stenhouse, I.J. 2004b. Canadian management plan for the Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea). Canadian Wildlife Service, St. John's, NL.

Varty, N. and Tanner, K. 2009. Background Document for Ivory gull Pagophila eburnea. Biodiversity Series, OSPAR.

Volkov, A. E., de Korte, J. 2000. Breeding ecology of the Ivory Gull (Pagophila eburnea) in Sedov Archipelago, Severnaya Zemlya. Research, conservation and international cooperation, Ecopros Publishers, Moscow, : 483-500.

Volkov, A. E.; de Korte, J. 1996. Distribution and numbers of breeding ivory gulls Pagophila eburnea in Severnaja Zemlja, Russian Arctic. Polar Research 15: 11-21.

Wright, N. J. R., & Matthews, D. W. 1980. New nesting colonies of the Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnea in southern Eastern Greenland . Dansk Orn Foren Tidsskr 74: 59-64.

Further resources

Detailed species account from Birds in Europe: population estimates, trends and conservation status (BirdLife International 2004)

Detailed species account from European Red List of Birds (BirdLife International 2015)

Search for photos and videos, and hear sounds of this species from the Macaulay Library

Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Pagophila eburnea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/10/2021.