Ivory-billed Woodpecker Campephilus principalis


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
D D D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Critically Endangered D
2016 Critically Endangered C2a(i,ii);D
2015 Critically Endangered C2a(i,ii);D
2013 Critically Endangered C2a(i,ii);D
2012 Critically Endangered C2a(i,ii);D
2010 Critically Endangered D1
2009 Critically Endangered D1
2008 Critically Endangered
2005 Critically Endangered
2004 Critically Endangered
2000 Critically Endangered
1996 Extinct
1994 Extinct
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1-49 poor estimated 2005
Population trend Unknown -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 2 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.35 - - -

Population justification: Given the lack of confirmed sightings since 1944 any remaining population within the USA is likely to be tiny. A tiny population may also remain in Cuba, despite lack of recent sightings. Its total population, if extant, is likely to number fewer than 50 individuals and mature individuals.

Trend justification: It is not possible to determine trends within any remaining population of the Ivory-billed Woodpecker should it remain extant, and as such, the direction of current trends remain unknown. Despite historical declines, this species's habitat throughout the southeastern U.S.A. is currently recovering as previously cut forests mature (Collins et al. 2019, G. Hill in litt. 2020), however habitat loss and potential hunting in Cuba may pose a threat to any remaining individuals within the Cuban subpopulation.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Cuba N Possibly Extant Yes
USA N Possibly Extinct Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cuba Alejandro de Humboldt
Cuba Cuchillas de Moa y del Toa

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Swamp major resident
Altitude 0 - 900 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Unknown Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Unknown Unknown Unknown Unknown
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Unknown Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Campephilus principalis. Downloaded from on 18/10/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 18/10/2021.