NT
Inca Tern Larosterna inca



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened A2cde+3cde+4cde
2016 Near Threatened A2cde+3cde+4cde
2012 Near Threatened A2cde+3cde+4cde
2010 Near Threatened A2c,d,e; A3c,d,e; A4c,d,e
2008 Near Threatened A2c,d,e; A3c,d,e; A4c,d,e
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 219 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,650,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,240,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals unknown unknown 2003
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11 - - -

Population justification: The total population has been estimated more than 150,000 individuals (Zavaga et al. unpublished data).

Trend justification: Survey data suggest that moderately rapid declines have occurred.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Chile N Extant
Colombia N Extant
Ecuador N Extant
Panama V Extant
Peru N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Peru Isla Lobos de Afuera
Peru Reserva Nacional de Paracas
Peru Río Tambo y Lagunas de Mejía
Peru Laguna de Ite
Peru Isla Foca
Chile Costa sur de Arica
Chile Corriente de Humboldt Arica
Chile Islote Concón
Chile Desembocadura del Río Imperial
Chile Playa Sur de Arica
Chile Arica Pelágica
Chile Puerto de Arica
Chile Islote Pupuya
Chile Estero Mantagua y Desembocadura del Río Aconcagua
Chile Paradero de aves Roquerios de Laucho y Lisera
Chile Desembocadura del Río Lluta
Chile Santuario de la Naturaleza Rocas de Constitución
Chile Roca Oceanica (Valparaíso)
Chile Costa de Quintero y Mar Adyacente (Pelagico)
Peru Humedales de Chimbote / Isla Lobos de Afuera / Isla Lobos de Tierra - Marine
Peru Río Tambo y Lagunas de Mejía - Marine
Peru Reserva Nacional de Paracas - Marine
Chile Islotes Pajaros
Chile Isla Tilgo
Chile Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt - Isla Choros, Damas y Punta de Choros
Chile Humedal El Yali
Chile Monumento Natural Isla Cachagua
Chile Santuario de la Naturaleza Península de Hualpén
Chile Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar
Chile Desembocadura del Río Bío-Bío

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Larosterna inca. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 02/12/2020.