LC
Imperial Shag Leucocarbo atriceps



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Following Kennedy and Spencer (2014) the genus Phalacrocorax has been divided into six genera, with P. magellanicus, P. bougainvilliorum, P. atriceps, P. verrucosus, P. carunculatus, P. chalconotus, P. onslowi, P. campbelli, P. ranfurlyi and P. colensoi moved into Leucocarbo (HBW and BirdLife International 2018). Phalacrocorax atriceps and P. verrucosus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as P. atriceps following Turbott (1990).

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2018. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 3. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/userfiles/file/Species/Taxonomy/HBW-BirdLife_Checklist_v3_Nov18.zip.
Kennedy, Martyn & Spencer, Hamish. 2014. Classification of the Cormorants of the World. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution. 79: 249-257.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
2012 Not Recognised
2008 Not Recognised
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 26,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 27,700,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 0
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.3 - - -

Population justification: The population size has not been quantified owing to a recent taxonomic split.

Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are fluctuating, stable, or have unknown trends (Delany and Scott 2006).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Antarctica N Extant Yes
Argentina N Extant Yes Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories N Extant Yes
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
French Southern Territories Île de la Possession
French Southern Territories Île de l'Est
French Southern Territories Île aux Cochons
French Southern Territories Île des Pingouins
South Africa Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve
Argentina Punta León
Argentina Península Mitre
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia - mainland, islands, islets and stacks
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bleaker Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Hummock Island Group
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) New Island Group
Chile Isla Doña Sebastiana Punta Chocoi y Roqueríos adyacentes
Chile Bahía Chilota, Porvenir
Chile Parque Nacional Cabo de Hornos
Antarctica Southern Powell Island and adjacent islands
Antarctica Avian Island
Antarctica Emperor Island, Dion Islands
Antarctica Paulet Island
Antarctica Cockburn Island
Antarctica Islet southwest of Cape Davidson, Laurie Island
Antarctica Islet east of Guépratte Island
Antarctica Island north of Dodman Island
Antarctica Uruguay Island
Antarctica Bluff Island
Antarctica Pursuit Point, Wiencke Island
Antarctica Cape Evensen
Antarctica Stonington Island
Antarctica Islet south of Bates Island
Antarctica Pearl Rocks
Antarctica Ginger Islands
Antarctica Cormorant Island
Antarctica Atriceps Island, Robertson Islands
Antarctica Armstrong Reef
Antarctica Joubin Islands
Antarctica Signy Island
Antarctica Trinity Island southwest
Antarctica Pirie Peninsula, Laurie Island
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Hummock Island Group - Marine
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bleaker Island Group / Sea Lion Islands Group - Marine
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) Bird Island / New Island Group - Marine
Argentina Punta León - Marine
Argentina Península Mitre - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Shag Rocks - Marine
South Africa Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve - Marine
French Southern Territories Île aux Cochons / Îles des Apôtres - Marine
French Southern Territories Île de la Possession / Île de l'Est - Marine
French Southern Territories Île des Pingouins - Marine
Antarctica Rosenthal Islands
Antarctica Lagotellerie Island
Argentina Punta León - Marina
Argentina Isla Quintano
Argentina Isla Pingüino y otras
Argentina Bahía Franklin
Argentina Islas Observatorio y Goffré
Argentina Islas Becasses
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia Inner Marine
Antarctica Ryder Bay Islands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Freshwater Lakes suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline major breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major breeding
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major breeding
Altitude 0 - 800 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Competition
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Coragyps atratus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Larus dominicanus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Leucocarbo atriceps. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/12/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 03/12/2021.