VU
Iiwi Drepanis coccinea



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Drepanis coccinea (del Hoyo and Collar 2016) was previously placed in the genus Vestiaria following AOU (1998 & supplements); Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A3bce+4bce A3bce+4bce

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Vulnerable A3bce+4bce
2016 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2012 Vulnerable B1ab(i,ii,iii,v)
2008 Vulnerable B1a+b(i,ii,iii,v)
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 44,500 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,000
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250000-500000 good estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing medium inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 6-73,30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 6-73,30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 6-7 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 90-94 - - -

Population justification:

It has a male-biased sex ratio of 1.44:1 (Fancy et al. 1993).

During 1976-1983, the population size was estimated at c.385,000 individuals, excluding birds on O`ahu (Scott et al. 1986). In the early 1990s, the total population was estimated to be more than 350,000 individuals (Jacobi and Atikinson 1995)Based on data from surveys up to 2012, using distance sampling and by multiplying density estimates by areas of habitat. the total population size was estimated to be 605,418 individuals (550,972–659,864 95% C. I.; Paxton et al. 2013). It was noted that surveys were carried out during the breeding season, when most juveniles had not fledged, so the individuals counted were mostly adults. The earlier population estimates are thought to have been understimates due to the time of year that the surveys took place (Paxton et al. 2013). 

The main population on Hawai‘i Island was estimated at 340,000 ± 12,000 individuals based on surveys in 1976-1983 (Scott et al. 1986). In 2012, the population on the island was estimated at 543,009 individuals (516,312–569,706 95% C.I.; Paxton et al. 2013). This included 277,055 birds in the northeastern part of the island (at Hakalau), 71,524 birds in the central eastern part of the island, 28,325 birds in the southeastern part of the island, 3,489 birds in south Kona, western Hawai‘i, 139,829 birds in central Kona, 22,787 birds in north Kona, and 802 individuals in the Kohala Mountains (based on surveys in 1976-1983; Scott et al. 1986). The 1976-1983 population in the Kohala Mountains was later re-estimated at 690 (Burnett 2020). Following further surveys in 2017, the Kohala Mountains population was estimated at 4,928 (2,910 - 8,345) individuals (Burnett 2020), although differences in survey timing may have affected the comparability of the results. At Mauna Kea, the population was estimated to number 802 birds in 1979-1983 (Scott et al.1986). 

During 1976-1983, the population on east Maui was estimated at 19,000 ± 2,000 individuals (Scott et al. 1986). In 2001, the population on east Maui was estimated at 107,744 individuals (Camp et al. 2009). Based on surveys in 2011 and 2012, the population on east Maui was estimated at 59,859 individuals (54,569–65,148 95% C. I; Paxton et al. 2013). The difference between the 2001 and 2011-12 estimates may be partly attributed to a decline, and partly attributed to survey error (Paxton et al. 2013). Following further surveys in 2017, the 2011-2012 population size was re-estimated at 37,574 individuals, and the 2017 east Maui population size was estimated at 50,252 (43,908–57,146 95% C. I.) individuals (Judge et al. 2019).

There is a small population on west Maui. A total of 5, 2 and 11 individuals were recorded in 1980, 1997, and 2010, respectively (Paxton et al. 2013). In 1980, the population on west Maui was estimated at 180 ± 150 individuals (Scott et al. 1986).

At Alaka‘i Plateau on Kaua‘i, the population numbered 7,800 ± 2,300 individuals in 1968-1973, with the total Kaui population estimated at the time to be 26,000 ±6,000 individuals (Sincock et al. 1984). 5,400 ± 500 individuals were estimated at the Alaka‘i Plateau in 1981 (Fancy and Ralph 2020). By 2004, the Kaua‘i population was estimated at 9,985 ±960 individuals (Foster et al. 2004), and in 2012, at 2,603 individuals (1,789–3,520 95% C. I.; Paxton et al. 2016).

Eight individuals were recorded during surveys on O`ahu from 1994-1996 (Vanderwerf and Rohrer 1996), with the total population there suspected to be less than 50 individuals. Only a small proportion of the area of suitable elevation on the island has been surveyed (Paxton et al. 2013). The current population on O`ahu is likely to be extremely small, and perhaps no more than ten individuals (USFW 2017).

On Moloka`i, 12 individuals were recorded during 120 counts in 1979-1980, and the population was estimated at 80 ± 65 (Scott et al. 1986). There have been very few records since (Paxton et al. 2013, eBird 2020). During 148 counts in 1988, only two individuals were detected (T. Pratt unpubl. data, in Fancy and Ralph 1998). Any remaining population on the island is likely to be extremely small.

Based on the range of estimates, the total population size is therefore estimated at 350,000 - 601,470 individuals. Assuming that most recorded individuals were adults, and taking into account the male-biased sex ratio, the total number of mature individuals may be placed at approximately 280,000 - 481,176, and is here placed in the band 250,000 - 500,000 mature individuals.

There are up to seven subpopulations: one or two on Hawai‘i Island (Scott et al. 1986), and one on each of east Maui, Kaua‘i, O`ahu, west Maui and Moloka`i (Paxton et al. 2013).

Trend justification:

Data from surveys indicates that populations have declined in Kaua‘i and parts of east Hawai‘i island, and suggests population increases in west Hawai‘i island, although it is noted that data from here is sparse (Paxton et al. 2013). Models of the impact of climate change and the resulting increased prevalence of avian malaria projected that the species will undergo severe declines by the end of the century (Fortini et al. 2015, Guillaumet et al. 2017). The species's population size is therefore projected to be undergoing a decline.

In the northeastern part of Hawai‘i island, at Hakalau, the population was estimated at 277,055 birds in 2012, and the population was estimated to be stable or declining slowly between 1999 and 2012, with a projected 20% decrease over 25 years (Paxton et al. 2013). In the central eastern part of the island, the 2012 population was estimated at 71,524 birds, with a decreasing trend over 1995-2012, with projected reductions of 48% over 25 years at Keauhou, and 29% over 25 years at Mauna Loa (Paxton et al. 2013). In the southeastern part of the island, the population was estimated to number 28,325 birds in 2004-2010 (Paxton et al. 2013). Density estimates were two-to-three times lower in 2004-2008 than in 1976, and the species had disappeared at another site in the region, but the differences may reflect survey error (Paxton et al. 2013). 

In south Kona, western Hawai‘i, the population was estimated at 3,489 birds, based on surveys conducted in 2003, 2009 and 2010 (Paxton et al. 2013). Population densities indicated a 96% decrease from 1978 to 2009, and a 43% decrease from 2005 to 2010 at higher elevations (Paxton et al. 2013). In central Kona, the population was estimated at 139,829 birds, based on the densities observed in 2009 and 2010 (Paxton et al. 2013). The population density was estimated to have increased over 1995-2012, with 71% and 97% increases projected over 25 years from lower and upper elevations, respectively (Paxton et al. 2013). In north Kona, the population was estimated at 22,787 birds, based on survey results from 2003 and 2009 (Paxton et al. 2013). The population density in the Pu'u Wa'awa'a region was estimated to have increased over 1990-2009, with a projected 147% increase over 25 years (Paxton et al. 2013). However, the apparent increases in the western part of the island may be an artefact of small sample sizes (Paxton et al. 2013). The Kohala Mountains were estimated to hold 802 individuals in 1976-1983 (Scott et al. 1986), later revised to 690 (Burnett 2020), and 4,928 individuals in 2017 (Burnett 2020), although differences in survey timing may have affected the comparability of the results. At Mauna Kea, the population was estimated to number 802 birds in 1979-1983 (Scott et al.1986). Species abundance declined from 0.0039 birds per station (bps) in 1998-2002 to 0.007 bps in 2003-2007, and 0.002 bps in 2008-2012 (Paxton et al. 2013).

Based on surveys in 2011 and 2012, the population on east Maui was estimated at 59,859 individuals (Paxton et al. 2013). Densities in the northeast of east Maui declined between 1980 and 2011, with a projected decline of 34% over 25 years (Paxton et al. 2013). However, densities in the southeast showed a stable or moderately increasing trend, with a projected 22% increase over 25 years (Paxton et al. 2013). Following further surveys in 2017, the 2011-2012 population size was re-estimated at 37,574 individuals, and the 2017 east Maui population size was estimated at 50,252 individuals, representing a density increase of 110 individuals/km2 (Judge et al. 2019).

There is a small population on west Maui. In 1980, the population on west Maui was estimated at 180 ± 150 individuals (Scott et al. 1986). The sample sizes here have been too small to infer a trend (Paxton et al. 2013).

The population on Kaua‘i is rapidly declining (Paxton et al. 2013, 2016). In 2004, the Kaua‘i population was estimated at 9,985 ±960 individuals (Foster et al. 2004), and in 2012, at 2,603 individuals (Paxton et al. 2016). The species's range on the island declined from c.10,064 ha in 2000 (Foster et al. 2004) to 5,436 ha in 2012 (Paxton et al. 2013). Densities at the Alaki'i Plateau significantly declined from 2000 to 2012, with a projected decline 92% over 25 years (Paxton et al. 2013).

On Moloka`i, 12 individuals were recorded during 120 counts in 1979-1980, and the population was estimated at 80 ± 65 (Scott et al. 1986). There have been very few records since (Paxton et al. 2013, eBird 2020), and any remaining population on the island is likely to be extremely small.

By scaling and projecting the trends described above to the period 2010-2020, and scaling by the proportion of the total population to which they refer, the total population size is inferred to have been approximately stable, or to have undergone a reduction of up to around 11%, over the past decade, depending on whether increasing trends based on limited data are included in the estimate. These estimates assume that trends projected in 2012 (Paxton et al. 2013) continued. The species is therefore inferred to have undergone a reduction of 0-11% over the past ten years.

A model of the impact of climate change predicted that the species will lose 59.9% of its range between 1990–2010 and 2080–2100 (Fortini et al. 2015). This rate of decline is equivalent to a reduction of 10% over ten years. A model of the impact of malaria under climate change projected that the species's abundance in the Hamakua region may decline from 43.3% of estimated carrying capacity in 2003-2004 to 15% (0.3–24.6%) by 2100 (Guillaumet et al. 2017). This rate of decline is also equivalent to a reduction of 10% (6-40%) over ten years. However, it is unlikely that declines caused by climate change and its impact on malaria will occur at a constant rate, and the species's range may decline sharply when a climate 'tipping point' is reached (see Paxton et al. 2016).

Rapid 'öhi'a Death (R.O.D.; Ceratocystis sp.), has recently spread rapidly across the Hawaiian Islands and has caused extensive mortality of 'öhi'a (Keith et al. 2015, Fortini et al. 2019). In 2016, it was estimated that approximately 200 km2 of forest on Hawai‘i had been affected (Hughes 2016, in USFWS 2017b), including some areas within the range of the Iiwi (Hughes 2016 and Keith 2016, in USFWS 2017b), and by 2019, more than 600 km2 of forest were affected (Fortini et al. 2019). Based on a model of the potential range of C. lukuohia across the Hawaiian islands under current climatic conditions (Fortini et al. 2019), it has a high chance of infecting up to around 40% of the tree cover within the Iiwi's range. Surveys in an infected area of forest found that the density of another Hawaiian honeycreeper, the Hawaii Amakihi (Chlorodrepanis virens), declined by 79% between 2003-2004 and 2016, following the infection of the forest with R.O.D. (Camp et al. 2019). Assuming that 40% of the Iiwi's range is affected over the next decade, and that density declines similar to those seen in Chlorodrepanis virens occur, R.O.D. could cause a reduction of up to 33% over the next three generations. However, R.O.D. is more prevalent at higher temperatures at lower elevations, and the Iiwi is more numerous at higher elevations, so it may be expected to be affected less severely.

Taking into account the projected decline of up to 11% over the past decade, the projected future declines of around 10% (6-40%) per decade due to climate change and malaria (Fortini et al. 2015, Guillaumet et al. 2017), and the potential additional future decline of up to 33% caused by R.O.D., the species is suspected to undergo a reduction in the range of 6-73% over the next decade, with a best estimate placed in the band 30-49%.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
USA N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
USA Kau Forest
USA Kauai Forests and Uplands
USA Mauna Kea Mamane - Naio Forest
USA Mauna Loa-Kilauea Forests
USA Hamakua Forests
USA Molokai Forests
USA Haleakala
USA Kona Forests
USA Oahu Uplands

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 1300 - 1900 m Occasional altitudinal limits 300 - 2900 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Species disturbance, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Axis axis Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Bos taurus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Capra hircus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Ceratocystis huliohia Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Ceratocystis lukuohia Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Culex quinquefasciatus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Ovis aries Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Ovis gmelini Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Plasmodium relictum Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Sus domesticus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avipoxvirus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Drepanis coccinea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 11/08/2022.