VU
Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti



References

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Coker, R.E. 1920. Peru's Wealth-producing Birds: Vast Riches in the Guano Deposits of Cormorants, Pelicans, and Petrels which Nest on Her Barren, Rainless Coast. Judd & Detweiler.

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Paredes, R., and C. B. Zavalaga. 1998. Overview of the effects of El Niño 1997–98 on Humboldt penguins and other seabirds at Punta San Juan, Perú. Penguin Conservation 11: 5–7.

Paredes, R.; Zavalaga, C. B. 2001. Nesting sites and nest types as important factors for the conservation of Humboldt Penguins (Sphensicus humboldti). Biological Conservation 100: 199-205.

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Simeone, A. and Luna-Jorquera, G. 2012. Estimating rat predation on Humboldt Penguin colonies in north-central Chile. Journal of Ornithology 153: 1079-1085.

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Simeone, A., B. Araya, M. Bernal, E. N. Diebold, K. Grzybowski, M. Michaels, J. A. Tare, R. C. Wallace, and M. J. Willis. 2002. Oceanographic and climatic factors influencing breeding and colony attendance patterns of Humboldt penguins Spheniscus humboldti. Marine Ecology Progress Series 227: 43–50.

Simeone, A., M. Bernal, and J. Meza. 1999. Incidental mortality of Humboldt penguins Spheniscus humboldti in gill nets, central Chile. Marine Ornithology 27: 157–61.

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Taylor, SS ; Leonard, ML ; Boness, DJ ; Majluf, P. 2002. Foraging by Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) during the chick-rearing period: general patterns, sex differences, and recommendations to reduce incidental catches in fishing nets . Canadian Journal Of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie 80(4): 700-707.

Valkiūnas, G., Palinauskas, V., Ilgūnas, M., Bukauskaitė, D., Dimitrov, D., Bernotienė, R., Zehtindjiev, P., Ilieva, M. and Iezhova, T.A. 2014. Molecular characterization of five widespread avian haemosporidian parasites (Haemosporida), with perspectives on the PCR-based detection of haemosporidians in wildlife. Parasitology research 113(6): 2251-2263.

Van Buren, A. N., and P. D. Boersma. 2007. Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in the Northern Hemisphere. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119(284–288).

Vanstreels, R. E. T., Braga, É. M., & Catao-Dias, J. L. 2016. Blood parasites of penguins: a critical review. Parasitology 143: 931.

Vargas, F. H., S. Harrison, S. Rea, and D. W. Macdonald. 2006. Biological effects of El Niño on the Galápagos penguin. Biological Conservation . Biological Conservation 127: 107-114.

Wallace, R. S.; Grzybowski, K.; Diebold, E.; Michaels, M. G.; Tear, J. A.; Willis, M. J. 1999. Movements of Humboldt Penguins from a breeding colony in Chile. Waterbirds 22: 441-444.

Wallace, R.S. and Araya, B. 2015. Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti population in Chile: counts of moulting birds, February 1999–2008. Marine Ornithology 43: 107–112.

Zavalaga, C. B. and Alfaro-Shigueto, J. 2015. Unveiling an important Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) breeding colony in Perú and the need for its protection against the potential impact of guano harvest. Waterbirds 38: 302-307.

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Arkive species - Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti)

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Spheniscus humboldti. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/09/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/09/2017.