Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti


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Coker, R.E. 1920. Peru's Wealth-producing Birds: Vast Riches in the Guano Deposits of Cormorants, Pelicans, and Petrels which Nest on Her Barren, Rainless Coast. Judd & Detweiler, Washington.

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Culik, B. M.; Luna-Jorquera, G. 1997. Satellite tracking of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in northern Chile. Marine Biology 128: 547-556.

Culik, B. M.; Luna-Jorquera, G. 1997. The Humboldt Penguin: a migratory bird? . Journal of Ornithology 138: 325–330.

Culik, B. M.; Luna-Jorquera, G.; Oyarzo, H.; Correa, H. 1998. Humboldt penguins monitored via VHF telemetry. Marine Ecology Progress Series 162: 279-286.

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Herling, C; Culik, B. M.; Hennicke, J. C. 2005. Diet of the Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in northern and southern Chile. Marine Biology 147: 13-25.

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Mattern, T.; Ellenberg, R.; Luna-Jorquera, G.; Davis, L.S. 2004. Humboldt Penguin census on Isla Chañaral, Chile: Recent increase or past underestimate of penguin numbers? . Waterbirds 27: 368–376.

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Paredes, R.; Zavalaga, C. B. 1998. Overview of the effects of El Niño 1997–98 on Humboldt penguins and other seabirds at Punta San Juan, Perú. Penguin Conservation 11: 5–7.

Paredes, R.; Zavalaga, C. B. 2001. Nesting sites and nest types as important factors for the conservation of Humboldt Penguins (Sphensicus humboldti). Biological Conservation 100: 199-205.

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Paredes, R.; Zavalaga, C. B.; Boness, D. J. 2002. Patterns of egg laying and breeding success in Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) at Punta San Juan, Peru. Auk 119: 244-250.

Pütz, K.; Raya Rey, A.; Hiriart-Bertrand, L.; Simeone, A.; Reyes-Arriagada, R.; Lüthi, B. 2016. Post-moult movements of sympatrically breeding Humboldt and Magellanic penguins in south-central Chile. Global Ecology and Conservation 7: 49-58.

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Simeone, A., M. Bernal, and J. Meza. 1999. Incidental mortality of Humboldt penguins Spheniscus humboldti in gill nets, central Chile. Marine Ornithology 27: 157–61.

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Simeone, A.; Luna-Jorquera, G. 2012. Estimating rat predation on Humboldt Penguin colonies in north-central Chile. Journal of Ornithology 153: 1079-1085.

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Taylor, SS ; Leonard, ML ; Boness, DJ ; Majluf, P. 2002. Foraging by Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) during the chick-rearing period: general patterns, sex differences, and recommendations to reduce incidental catches in fishing nets . Canadian Journal Of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie 80(4): 700-707.

Valkiūnas, G., Palinauskas, V., Ilgūnas, M., Bukauskaitė, D., Dimitrov, D., Bernotienė, R., Zehtindjiev, P., Ilieva, M. and Iezhova, T.A. 2014. Molecular characterization of five widespread avian haemosporidian parasites (Haemosporida), with perspectives on the PCR-based detection of haemosporidians in wildlife. Parasitology research 113(6): 2251-2263.

Van Buren, A. N., and P. D. Boersma. 2007. Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in the Northern Hemisphere. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119(284–288).

Vanstreels, R. E. T., Braga, É. M., & Catao-Dias, J. L. 2016. Blood parasites of penguins: a critical review. Parasitology 143: 931.

Vargas, F. H., S. Harrison, S. Rea, and D. W. Macdonald. 2006. Biological effects of El Niño on the Galápagos penguin. Biological Conservation . Biological Conservation 127: 107-114.

Vianna, J.A., Cortes, M., Ramos, B., Sallaberry-Pincheira, N., González-Acuña, D., Dantas, G.P.M., Morgante, J., Simeone, A. & Luna-Jorquera, G. 2014. Changes in abundance and distribution of Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti. Marine Ornithology 42: 153–159.

Wallace, R. S.; Grzybowski, K.; Diebold, E.; Michaels, M. G.; Tear, J. A.; Willis, M. J. 1999. Movements of Humboldt Penguins from a breeding colony in Chile. Waterbirds 22: 441-444.

Further resources

IUCN SSC Penguin Specialist Group

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Media resources

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Spheniscus humboldti. Downloaded from on 04/10/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 04/10/2023.