Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti


Araya, B. and F. S. Todd. 1987. Status of the Humboldt penguin in Chile following the 1982–83 El Niño. Proceedings of the Jean Delacour/IFCB Symposium, Los Angeles : 148–57.

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Battistini, G.; Paredes, R. 1999. Nesting habits and nest characteristics of Humboldt penguins at Punta San Juan, Peru. Penguin Conservation 12: 12-19.

Boersma, P.D. 1998. Population trends of the Galápagos Penguin: impacts of El Niño and La Niña. Condor 100: 245-253.

Cárcamo, P. F.; Cortés, M.; Ortega, L.; Squeo, F. A.; Gaymer, C. F. 2011. Crónica de un conflicto anunciado: Tres centrales termoeléctricas a carbón en un hotspot de biodiversidad de importancia mundial. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 84: 171-180.

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Coker, R.E. 1920. Peru's Wealth-producing Birds: Vast Riches in the Guano Deposits of Cormorants, Pelicans, and Petrels which Nest on Her Barren, Rainless Coast. Judd & Detweiler.

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Culik, B. M.; Luna-Jorquera, G. 1997. Satellite tracking of Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in northern Chile. Marine Biology 128: 547-556.

Culik, B. M.; Luna-Jorquera, G. 1997. The Humboldt Penguin: a migratory bird? . Journal of Ornithology 138: 325–330.

Culik, B. M.; Luna-Jorquera, G.; Oyarzo, H.; Correa, H. 1998. Humboldt penguins monitored via VHF telemetry. Marine Ecology Progress Series 162: 279-286.

Culik, B., J. Hennicke, and T. Martin. 2000. Humboldt penguins outmanoeuvring El Niño. Journal of Experimental Biology 203: 2311–22.

De la Puente, S.; Bussalleu, A.; Cardeña, M.; Valdés-Velásquez, A.; Majluf, P.; Simeone, A. 2013. Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus humboldti). In Penguins. Natural History and Conservation (Garcia Borboroglu, P. and Boersma, P. D., eds.) University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington, USA: 265-283.

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Ellenberg, U.; Mattern, T.; Seddon, P. J.; Jorquera, G. L. 2006. Physiological and reproductive consequences of human disturbance in Humboldt Penguins: the need for species-specific visitor management. Biological Conservation 133(1): 95-106.

Ellis, S., Croxall, J.P. and Cooper, J., 1998. Penguin Conservation Assessment and Management Plan. Report from the Workshop, Cape Town, September 1996. IUCN/SSC Conservation Breeding Specialist Group.

Hays, C. 1984. The Humboldt Penguin in Peru. Oryx 18: 92-95.

Hays, C. 1986. Effects of the 1982-83 El Niño on Humboldt Penguin colonies in Peru. Biological Conservation 36: 169-180.

Herling, C; Culik, B. M.; Hennicke, J. C. 2005. Diet of the Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in northern and southern Chile. Marine Biology 147: 13-25.

Jahncke, J., Checkley, D.M. and Hunt, G.L. 2004. Trends in carbon flux to seabirds in the Peruvian upwelling system: effects of wind and fisheries on population regulation. Fisheries oceanography 13(3): 208-223.

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Majluf, P., E. A. Babcock, J. C. Riveros, M. Arias-Schreiber, and W. Alderete. 2002. Catch and by-catch of sea birds and marine mammals in the small-scale fishery of Punta San Juan, Peru. Conservation Biology 16: 1333–43.

Murphy, R.C. 1936. Oceanic Birds of South America, 1 and 2. American Museum of Natural History, New York. Norman, JR, 1938.

Paredes, R., and C. B. Zavalaga. 1998. Overview of the effects of El Niño 1997–98 on Humboldt penguins and other seabirds at Punta San Juan, Perú. Penguin Conservation 11: 5–7.

Paredes, R.; Zavalaga, C. B. 2001. Nesting sites and nest types as important factors for the conservation of Humboldt Penguins (Sphensicus humboldti). Biological Conservation 100: 199-205.

Paredes, R.; Zavalaga, C. B.; Battistini, G.; Majluf, P.; McGill, P. 2003. Status of the Humboldt Penguin in Peru, 1999-2000. Waterbirds 26: 129-138.

Paredes, R.; Zavalaga, C. B.; Boness, D. J. 2002. Patterns of egg laying and breeding success in Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) at Punta San Juan, Peru. Auk 119: 244-250.

Pütz, K.; Raya Rey, A.; Hiriart-Bertrand, L.; Simeone, A.; Reyes-Arriagada, R.; Lüthi, B. 2016. Post-moult movements of sympatrically breeding Humboldt and Magellanic penguins in south-central Chile. Global Ecology and Conservation 7: 49-58.

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Simeone, A. and Luna-Jorquera, G. 2012. Estimating rat predation on Humboldt Penguin colonies in north-central Chile. Journal of Ornithology 153: 1079-1085.

Simeone, A., and M. Bernal. 2000. Effects of habitat modification on breeding seabirds: A case study in central Chile. Waterbirds 23: 449–456.

Simeone, A., and R. P. Schlatter. 1998. Threats to a mixed-species colony of Spheniscus penguins in southern Chile. Colonial Waterbirds 21: 418–421.

Simeone, A., B. Araya, M. Bernal, E. N. Diebold, K. Grzybowski, M. Michaels, J. A. Tare, R. C. Wallace, and M. J. Willis. 2002. Oceanographic and climatic factors influencing breeding and colony attendance patterns of Humboldt penguins Spheniscus humboldti. Marine Ecology Progress Series 227: 43–50.

Simeone, A., M. Bernal, and J. Meza. 1999. Incidental mortality of Humboldt penguins Spheniscus humboldti in gill nets, central Chile. Marine Ornithology 27: 157–61.

Skewgar, E., A. Simeone, and P. D. Boersma. 2009. Marine reserve in Chile would benefit penguins and ecotourism. Ocean and Coastal Management 52: 487–491.

Smith, K. M., Karesh, W. B., Majluf, P., Paredes, R., Zavalaga, C., Hoogesteijn Reul, A., and Cook, R. A. 2008. Health evaluation of free-ranging Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in Peru. Avian diseases 52: 130-135.

Taylor, SS ; Leonard, ML ; Boness, DJ ; Majluf, P. 2002. Foraging by Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) during the chick-rearing period: general patterns, sex differences, and recommendations to reduce incidental catches in fishing nets . Canadian Journal Of Zoology-Revue Canadienne De Zoologie 80(4): 700-707.

Valkiūnas, G., Palinauskas, V., Ilgūnas, M., Bukauskaitė, D., Dimitrov, D., Bernotienė, R., Zehtindjiev, P., Ilieva, M. and Iezhova, T.A. 2014. Molecular characterization of five widespread avian haemosporidian parasites (Haemosporida), with perspectives on the PCR-based detection of haemosporidians in wildlife. Parasitology research 113(6): 2251-2263.

Van Buren, A. N., and P. D. Boersma. 2007. Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti) in the Northern Hemisphere. Wilson Journal of Ornithology 119(284–288).

Vanstreels, R. E. T., Braga, É. M., & Catao-Dias, J. L. 2016. Blood parasites of penguins: a critical review. Parasitology 143: 931.

Vargas, F. H., S. Harrison, S. Rea, and D. W. Macdonald. 2006. Biological effects of El Niño on the Galápagos penguin. Biological Conservation . Biological Conservation 127: 107-114.

Wallace, R. S.; Grzybowski, K.; Diebold, E.; Michaels, M. G.; Tear, J. A.; Willis, M. J. 1999. Movements of Humboldt Penguins from a breeding colony in Chile. Waterbirds 22: 441-444.

Wallace, R.S. and Araya, B. 2015. Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti population in Chile: counts of moulting birds, February 1999–2008. Marine Ornithology 43: 107–112.

Zavalaga, C. B. and Alfaro-Shigueto, J. 2015. Unveiling an important Humboldt Penguin (Spheniscus humboldti) breeding colony in Perú and the need for its protection against the potential impact of guano harvest. Waterbirds 38: 302-307.

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Arkive species - Humboldt penguin (Spheniscus humboldti)

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Spheniscus humboldti. Downloaded from on 21/07/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 21/07/2017.