VU
Humboldt Penguin Spheniscus humboldti



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2016 Vulnerable A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde
2013 Vulnerable A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde;C1+2b
2012 Vulnerable A2bcde+3bcde+4bcde;C1+2b
2010 Vulnerable A2b,c,d,e; A3b,c,d,e; A4b,c,d,e; C1; C2b
2008 Vulnerable A2b,c,d,e; A3b,c,d,e; A4b,c,d,e; C1; C2b
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,710,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 2,230,000 medium
Number of locations 20 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 32000 good estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing medium inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.6 - - -

Population justification:

Counts of moulting birds including mature and immature individuals suggest an average population of c.33,400 ± 2,400 individuals for Chile (Wallace and Araya 2015) and c.10,900 ± 6,900 individuals for Peru (P. McGill pers. comm.). This roughly equates to a global population of 32,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: A current analysis of the population trend reveals high uncertainty in the quality of population numbers taken in the past three generations, with important deficiencies in the coverage of breeding sites and in the methodology employed to count penguins within and between Peru and Chile (Simeone and Cárdenas unpubl.). Most breeding colonies in Peru declined in numbers between 1980 and 2008 (Vianna et al. 2014). In contrast, some colonies in northern Chile showed a positive trend over the same time period; however, the significant population increase in the largest breeding colony at Chañaral Island was attributed to a considerable underestimation of penguin numbers in the past, and thus likely does not represent a real increase in numbers (Mattern et al. 2004, Vianna et al. 2014). Colonies in central Chile showed a stable or negative trend. As a consequence, interpreting the current trend of the global population is problematic and further research is needed. However, considering the lack of evidence for an overall stability or increase in numbers, the current population trend is precautionarily retained as declining.




Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Chile N Extant Yes
Colombia V Extant Yes
Ecuador V Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes
USA V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Chile Acantilados de Arica/ Guaneras de Camaraca
Chile Acantilados y Farellones Costeros
Chile Bahía de Coquimbo
Chile Corriente de Humboldt Arica
Chile Estero Mantagua y Desembocadura del Río Aconcagua
Chile Guabún
Chile Guaneras de Camaraca
Chile Guaneras de Cutipa
Chile Guaneras sur de Camarones
Chile Isla Chañaral
Chile Isla Chungungo
Chile Isla Doña Sebastiana Punta Chocoi y Roqueríos adyacentes
Chile Isla Grande de Atacama
Chile Isla Pájaro Niño de Algarrobo
Chile Isla Tilgo
Chile Islote Concón
Chile Islote Pupuya
Chile Islotes Pajaros
Chile Islotes Puñihuil
Chile Monumento Natural Isla Cachagua
Chile Monumento Natural Pingüineras de Puñihuil
Chile Parque Nacional Hornopirén
Chile Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar
Chile Parque Tumbes Talcahuano
Chile Patranca Island
Chile Pucatrihue
Chile Punta Lengua de Vaca
Chile Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt - Isla Choros, Damas y Punta de Choros
Chile Santuario de la Naturaleza Península de Hualpén
Peru Isla Foca
Peru Isla Lobos de Afuera
Peru Isla Lobos de Tierra
Peru Isla Pachacámac
Peru Laguna de Ite
Peru Reserva Nacional de Paracas

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Marine - Marine Anthropogenic Structures marginal resident
Desert Cold major resident
Forest Temperate marginal breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Marine Coastal/supratidal - Coastal Caves/Karst marginal resident
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major resident
Marine Intertidal Rocky Shoreline suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc marginal non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Shingle and/or Pebble Shoreline and/or Beaches major non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Tidepools marginal non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries marginal non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 80 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success
Climate change & severe weather Storms & flooding Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Rattus rattus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Lycalopex culpaeus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Fuels - - Non-trivial Recent
Fuels - - Non-trivial Recent
Handicrafts, jewellery, etc. - - Non-trivial Recent
Handicrafts, jewellery, etc. - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Spheniscus humboldti. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/06/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/06/2019.