LC
Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A., Fishpool, L.D.C., Boesman, P. and Kirwan, G.M. 2016. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 2: Passerines. Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 31 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 64,100,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 45,400,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 140000000 poor estimated 2016
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.5 - - -

Population justification: Partners in Flight estimate the global population to number 140,000,000 mature individuals (A. Panjabi in litt. 2017). The European population is estimated at 2,140,000-6,510,000 pairs, which equates to 4,280,000-13,000,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population sizes have been estimated at 100-10,000 breeding pairs, 50-1,000 individuals on migration and 50-1,000 wintering individuals in China as well as <1,000 individuals on migration and <1,000 wintering individuals in Japan (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification:

The population in Europe is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015). In North America, this species has undergone a large, significant decline over the last 50 years (70% decline between 1966 and 2015 based on the North American Breeding Bird Survey [Sauer et al. 2017], or 65% decline between 1970 and 2014 based on Partners in Flight [A. Panjabi in litt. 2017]). Recent trends suggest a significant decline of 22.9% over the last three generations in North America (Sauer et al. 2017). Therefore the global population is assessed as being in decline.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bhutan N Extant Yes
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Colombia N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) V Extant
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy V Extant
Japan V Extant
Jordan N Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Malta V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia N Extant Yes
Slovenia V Extant
Spain V Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Sweden Bay of Skälder
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Pisz forest
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Mount Vardousia
Greece Agrafa mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Ukraine Lyman lake
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Serbia Kopaonik
Serbia Prokletije
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Vlasina
Serbia Suva mountain
Serbia Stara mountains
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Norway Hardangervidda
Germany Hellwegbörde
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Solenoye lake
Canada Twin Islands
Canada Carden Plain
Canada Longridge Point and Associated Coastline
Canada Ekwan to Lakitusaki Shores
Canada Netitishi Point
Canada Îlot C
Canada Nares Lake
Afghanistan Big Pamir
Croatia Mt Dinara
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Kevo
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Karkyra Valley
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Upper Charyn
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subarctic major breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Sand Dunes suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Sandy Shoreline and/or Beaches, Sand Bars, Spits, Etc suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Boreal major breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable breeding
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 5400 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Nomadic grazing Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Cenchrus clandestinus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Herbicides and pesticides Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Eremophila alpestris. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/02/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 26/02/2021.