VU
Horned Grebe Podiceps auritus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2abce+3bce+4abce

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Vulnerable A2abce+3bce+4abce
2016 Vulnerable A2abce+3bce+4abce
2015 Vulnerable A2abce+3bce+4abce
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 52,900,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 97,300,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.1 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c. 239,000-583,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2012). The European population is estimated at 6,400-9,200 pairs, which equates to 12,900-18,500 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe holds <10% of the global population with a similar proportion in Asia.

Trend justification: This species has undergone a large and statistically significant decrease over the last 40 years in North America (-75.9% decline over 40 years, equating to a -29.9% decline per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007). Overall it is highly likely that the population has declined by >30% over the last three generations (COSEWIC 2009). The relatively small European population is estimated to be decreasing at a rate approaching 30% in three generations (21.3 years) (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan U Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria V Extant
Armenia V Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina V Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus V Extant
Czech Republic N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Estonia N Extant Yes
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) V Extant
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Hong Kong (China) V Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India V Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel V Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon V Extant Yes
Libya V Extant
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro V Extant
Morocco V Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan V Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Serbia V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) N Extant Yes Yes
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria V Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Azerbaijan Aggyol
China (mainland) Bayanbulak and Kaidu River Valley
Denmark Ronne Banke
Denmark Rønne Banke
Estonia Kahtla-Kübassaare
Estonia Kõrvemaa
Estonia Lavassaare
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Suomenoja
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Littoral Augeron
Germany Ammersee
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Möhnesee
Germany Pomeranian bay
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Untermain
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Iceland Austara Eylendid
Iceland Mývatn-Laxá
Iceland Öxarfjördur
Iceland Úthérad
Iceland Vestmannsvatn
Japan Yakumo
Kazakhstan Markakol State Nature Reserve
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Lubans and fish-ponds
Norway Balsfjord
Norway Inner Trondheimsfjord
Norway Jæren
Norway Lake Leksdalsvatn
Norway Leknes wetland system
Norway Lista wetland system
Norway Ørlandet
Norway Reisa
Norway Saltstraumen & Skjerstadfjorden
Norway Smøla archipelago
Norway Southern Snåsavatn & Lømsen
Norway Straume wetland system
Norway Tautra & Svaet
Norway Været
Poland East Border Waters
Poland Pomeranian bay
Poland Vistula river mouth
Russia (Central Asian) Baturino-Simansky area
Russia (Central Asian) Bystroistokskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Dzhulukul' depression
Russia (Central Asian) Ilmensky zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Kondinskiye lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Kornilovsky pine forest
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Mayan lake
Russia (Central Asian) Pershinsko-Manatkinsky area
Russia (Central Asian) Russkoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Russia (Central Asian) Upper streams of Ob' river
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhne-Kondinsky zakaznik
Russia (Central Asian) Watershed of the Mulym'ya and Bolshoy Tap rivers
Russia (European) Adovo-Chugrumski wetland
Russia (European) Druzhinnoe lake and its outskirts
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Valley of Sysola river
Sweden Sjaunja
United Kingdom Exe Estuary
United Kingdom Loch Ashie
United Kingdom Loch Ruthven
United Kingdom Loch Ruthven and Nearby Lochs
United Kingdom Loch Tarff and nearby lochs
United Kingdom Loch Tarff and Nearby Lochs
United Kingdom Moray Basin, Firths and Bays
United Kingdom North Inverness Lochs
United Kingdom North Inverness Lochs
United Kingdom Scapa Flow
United Kingdom South Cornwall Coast
USA Prince William Sound

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 1000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Oncorhynchus mykiss Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases - Podilymbus podiceps Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Competition
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Nutrient loads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Unknown Past Impact
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Oil spills Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Podiceps auritus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/08/2019.