EN
Hook-billed Hermit Glaucis dohrnii



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
This species qualifies as Endangered owing to the massive deforestation throughout its range which has reduced it to a few fragmented subpopulations likely to be declining as a result of continued habitat loss.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 250-999 mature individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals.

Trend justification
A moderate and ongoing decline is suspected on the basis of continued habitat destruction and fragmentation.

Distribution and population

Glaucis dohrnii occurs in east Brazil, where it is known from a few widely scattered localities in Bahia and Espírito Santo. There are historical sight records from extreme east Minas Gerais where its occurrence is supported by records from adjacent Espírito Santo. Rio de Janeiro has been included in the species's published range based on a specimen labelled Rio de Janeiro. In Bahia, there are recent reports from only three sites: Estação Veracruz (formerly the CVRD Porto Seguro Reserve) (F. Olmos in litt. 1999), where it was found relatively frequently during 1993-1997 [E. O. Willis and Y. Oniki in litt. 1999]), Monte Pascoal National Park (a few recent records [G. M. Kirwan in litt. 2000, Y. Oniki in litt. 1993]), and adjacent to Serra de Itamaruja (one in July 1993 [Y. Oniki in litt. 1993]). In Espírito Santo, there is just one recent record (in 1988), from Linhares Forest Reserve, but it has not been seen subsequently. Possible records of birds at two further sites (Bralanda and Barrolândia) are being verified (E. O. Willis and Y. Oniki in litt. 1999). It is likely that the species has never been common, but it has undoubtedly declined significantly in numbers and distribution.

Ecology

It occurs humid forest, particularly along streambeds with flowering Heliconia. It is generally seen in the forest interior, but has been recorded visiting ornamental flowers in areas adjacent to forest. It is reported to breed from September to February.

Threats

The lowland forests of east Brazil have been fragmented and destroyed, and this is considered to be the principal cause of its decline. Although there are recent records from two reserves, these are under pressure from settlers, suffer from fire and road construction and generally provide inadequate protection. Perhaps most importantly, they protect few watercourses and consequently little suitable habitat for this species. The new owners of Estação Veracruz have apparently abandoned plans to clear the forest (F. Olmos in litt. 1999).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix I and II. It is considered nationally Endangered and protected under Brazilian law (Silveira and Straube 2008, MMA 2014). It survives in Monte Pascoal and Pau Brasil National Parks and Porto Seguro Reserve (now Estação Veracruz) and Fazenda Palmeiras, near Itapebi, with single records from Serra de Itamaraju and Una Biological Reserve, all in Bahia, and Linhares Forest Reserve, Espírito Santo; at the latter, only a single recent record (in 1988), despite presence of many observers; now almost certainly extinct in Córrego Grande Federal Biological Reserve (Espírito Santo), which was formerly thought to be a stronghold of the species (Hinkelmann & Kirwan 2015).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Assess its current status at Monte Pascoal National Park, Linhares Forest Reserve and Córrego Grande Biological Reserve. Survey historical localities and other areas of suitable habitat. Study its ecological requirements. Promote the continued protection of forest at Estação Veracruz and existing reserves where the species occurs.

Identification

12 cm. Dull coloured hermit hummingbird. Greenish-bronze upperparts. Cinnamon underparts. White supercilium and malar, with dusky face and lower border to malar. Metallic bronze tail with outer rectrices tipped white. Almost straight bill with whitish mandible. Similar spp. Saw-billed Hermit Ramphodon naevius is larger with bold streaks on underparts. Rufous-breasted Hermit Glaucis hirsuta has slightly decurved bill, rufous base to outer four rectrices and black subterminal tail-band. Voice Descending high-pitched phrase.

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Benstead, P., Capper, D., Clay, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Williams, R.

Contributors
Oniki, Y., Willis, E., Olmos, F., Kirwan, G.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Glaucis dohrnii. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/04/2019.