CR
Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A3cd+4acd A2acd+3cd+4acd A2acd+3cd+4acd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Critically Endangered A3cd+4acd
2016 Critically Endangered A2acd+3cd+4acd
2015 Critically Endangered A2acd+3cd+4acd
2012 Endangered A2acd+3cd+4acd
2011 Endangered A2a,c,d; A3c,d; A4a,c,d
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 22,500,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 23,500,000 km2 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 131000 mature individuals poor suspected 2011
Population trend decreasing poor inferred 1996-2035
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 68-79% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 68-90% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 68-90% - - -
Generation length 13 years - - -

Population justification: Given evidence of recent declines in various parts of its range, this species' population is suspected to number a maximum of 197,000 individuals (Ogada and Buij 2011). This equates to a maximum of 131,320 mature individuals, rounded here to 131,000 mature individuals. This is a very approximate value, and it is noted that the number may have reduced considerably in the past decade.

Trend justification: This species' population has declined rapidly (Ogada et al. 2016). Based on road transect data from West Africa collected between 1969/70 and 2003/4 (Thiollay 2006), subsequently adjusted for area (P. Shaw in litt. 2022), the population was undergoing an estimated annual decline of -2.8%, equivalent to a reduction of 68% over three generations. This is estimated/projected to have been the minimum rate of population reduction up to 2022.
However, since the West Africa data was collected, population crashes have been reported across many West African countries, including Côte d’Ivoire (Salewski 2021, A.A. Asso, N. A. Koné and V. Salewski in litt. 2022), Togo (N. Arcilla and Z. Kolani in litt. 2022), Benin (C. Dabone in litt. 2022) and Ghana (outside of Mole National Park) (Gbogbo et al. 2016, S. Goded and S.B. Yiadom in litt. 2022) and from the wider landscape in Nigeria (Awoyemi 2021, Williams et al. 2021a, b), along with the evidence of illegal killing occurring in areas considered more secure (Guinea-Bissau, Burkina Faso and Gambia). It has been almost entirely extirpated in some parts of its range, for example in Edo State, southern Nigeria (Nosazeogie et al. 2018). Roost counts in Dakar, Senegal, found a drop in numbers from c.3,000 in 1969-1971 to c.400 in 2016, equating to a decline of 82% over three generations (Mullié et al. 2017). Although the tiny proportion of the population in South Africa and Eswatini seems to be experiencing only marginal declines, more recent transect data also shows rapid reductions in Kenya and northern Botswana, and the current small population size in southern African countries appears to stem from rapid declines in earlier decades. Updated trends are therefore urgently required for West Africa, but recent reductions are suspected to have been at a rate that considerably exceeds the 68% estimated from the road transect data (Ogada et al. 2016, P. Shaw in litt. 2022). As such the rate of reduction over the past three generations is placed in a band of 68-79%. Given how recently very large numbers remained in many West African countries, meaning this area held a large majority of the remaining population approximately two generations ago (26 years), and the extremely rapid and recent reductions and local extirpations reported from these countries, the overall (current and future) rate of reduction is suspected to be significantly higher. It is here placed in a suspected band of 67-90% over three generations, for the period from 1996-2035 (covering a period one generation into the future), and also for the future three-generation period, 2023-2062.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Angola extant native yes
Benin extant native yes
Botswana extant native yes yes
Burkina Faso extant native yes
Burundi extant native yes
Cameroon extant native yes
Central African Republic extant native yes
Chad extant native yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the extant native yes
Côte d'Ivoire extant native yes
Djibouti extant native yes
Eritrea extant native yes
Eswatini extant native yes yes
Ethiopia extant native yes
Gambia extant native yes
Ghana extant native yes
Guinea extant native yes
Guinea-Bissau extant native yes
Kenya extant native yes
Liberia extant native yes
Malawi extant native yes
Mali extant native yes
Mauritania extant native yes
Morocco extant vagrant yes
Mozambique extant native yes
Namibia extant native yes yes
Niger extant native yes
Nigeria extant native yes
Rwanda extant native yes
Senegal extant native yes
Sierra Leone extant native yes
Somalia extant native yes
South Africa extant native yes yes
South Sudan extant native yes
Sudan extant native yes yes
Tanzania extant native yes
Togo extant native yes
Uganda extant native yes
Zambia extant native yes
Zimbabwe extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Senegal Dindefello Natural Reserve
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone River Estuary
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Senegal Parc National de Basse Casamance
Kenya Kirisia Forest
Ethiopia Mille-Sardo Wildlife Reserve North

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Desert Hot suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Other
Other options Other threat Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Medicine - human & veterinary - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Necrosyrtes monachus. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/hooded-vulture-necrosyrtes-monachus on 21/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 21/02/2024.