CR
Hooded Vulture Necrosyrtes monachus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
A3cd+4acd A2acd+3cd+4acd A2acd+3cd+4acd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Critically Endangered A3cd+4acd
2016 Critically Endangered A2acd+3cd+4acd
2015 Critically Endangered A2acd+3cd+4acd
2012 Endangered A2acd+3cd+4acd
2011 Endangered A2a,c,d; A3c,d; A4a,c,d
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 22,500,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 23,500,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 131000 poor suspected 2011
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 68-90 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 68-90 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 13 - - -

Population justification: Given evidence of recent declines in various parts of its range, this species' population is suspected to number a maximum of 197,000 individuals (Ogada and Buij 2011). This equates to a maximum of 131,320 mature individuals, rounded here to 131,000 mature individuals. This is a very approximate value, and it is noted that the number may have reduced considerably in the past decade.

Trend justification: This species' population has declined rapidly (Ogada et al. 2016). Based on road transect data from West Africa collected between 1969/70 and 2003/4 (Thiollay 2006), subsequently adjusted for area (P. Shaw in litt. 2022), the population was undergoing an estimated annual decline of -2.8%, equivalent to a reduction of 68% over three generations. This is estimated/projected to have been the minimum rate of population reduction up to 2022.
However, since the West Africa data was collected, population crashes have been reported across many West African countries, including Côte d’Ivoire (Salewski 2021, A.A. Asso, N. A. Koné and V. Salewski in litt. 2022), Togo (N. Arcilla and Z. Kolani in litt. 2022), Benin (C. Dabone in litt. 2022) and Ghana (outside of Mole National Park) (Gbogbo et al. 2016, S. Goded and S.B. Yiadom in litt. 2022) and from the wider landscape in Nigeria (Awoyemi 2021, Williams et al. 2021a, b), along with the evidence of illegal killing occurring in areas considered more secure (Guinea-Bissau, Burkina Faso and Gambia). It has been almost entirely extirpated in some parts of its range, for example in Edo State, southern Nigeria (Nosazeogie et al. 2018). Roost counts in Dakar, Senegal, found a drop in numbers from c.3,000 in 1969-1971 to c.400 in 2016, equating to a decline of 82% over three generations (Mullié et al. 2017). Although the tiny proportion of the population in South Africa and Eswatini seems to be experiencing only marginal declines, more recent transect data also shows rapid reductions in Kenya and northern Botswana, and the current small population size in southern African countries appears to stem from rapid declines in earlier decades. Updated trends are therefore urgently required for West Africa, but recent reductions are suspected to have been at a rate that considerably exceeds the 68% estimated from the road transect data (Ogada et al. 2016, P. Shaw in litt. 2022). As such the rate of reduction over the past three generations is placed in a band of 68-79%. Given how recently very large numbers remained in many West African countries, meaning this area held a large majority of the remaining population approximately two generations ago (26 years), and the extremely rapid and recent reductions and local extirpations reported from these countries, the overall (current and future) rate of reduction is suspected to be significantly higher. It is here placed in a suspected band of 67-90% over three generations, for the period from 1996-2035 (covering a period one generation into the future), and also for the future three-generation period, 2023-2062.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Chad N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Djibouti N Extant Yes
Eritrea N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant Yes Yes
Ethiopia N Extant Yes
Gambia N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant Yes
Guinea-Bissau N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Liberia N Extant Yes
Malawi N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant Yes
Mauritania N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant Yes
Mozambique N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes Yes
Niger N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant Yes
Sierra Leone N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant Yes
South Africa N Extant Yes Yes
South Sudan N Extant Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Togo N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes
Zambia N Extant Yes
Zimbabwe N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Senegal Dindefello Natural Reserve
Kenya Ol Ari Nyiro
Kenya Lolldaiga-Mukogodo-Ewaso N'yiro
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone River Estuary
Senegal Delta du Saloum
Senegal Parc National de Basse Casamance

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Desert Hot suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Other
Other options Other threat Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Unknown Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Medicine - human & veterinary - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Necrosyrtes monachus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 29/11/2022.