VU
Hooded Crane Grus monacha



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv)
2012 Vulnerable B2ab(i,ii,iii,iv,v);C1+2a(ii)
2008 Vulnerable B2a+b(i,ii,iii,iv,v); C1; C2a(ii)
2007 Vulnerable
2006 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Lower Risk/Conservation Dependent
1994 Lower Risk/Conservation Dependent
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,610,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 474,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 1,410 good
Number of locations 10 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 6000-15000 good estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing poor estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 12 - - -

Population justification:

The global population was estimated at c.11,600 individuals based on winter estimates of 1,050-1,150 individuals in China (J. Harris in litt. 2012); c.10,500 individuals in Japan (S. Chan in litt. 2012) and c.114 individuals in Korea (Li and Mundkur 2004). Recent estimates suggest there may have been an increase from 11,500 a decade ago, to an estimated 14,000 - 16,000 individuals in winter 2014/2015 (J. Harris in litt. 2016). The wide range in the current population estimate reflects the difficulty of counting the dense flocks of cranes at Izumi and the lack of recent range-wide winter counts for China (J. Harris in litt. 2016). The population is thus placed in the band for 6,000-15,000 mature individuals. 



Trend justification: This species's population is suspected to be decreasing at a moderate rate, in line with levels of wetland loss and degradation in its wintering grounds, primarily as a result of reclamation for development and dam building. Based upon winter counts, it is increasing at Izumi in Japan and Suncheon Bay in South Korea but the species is declining at all seven of its other known wintering sites (S. Chan in litt. 2006).  Across the whole population the past decline appears to have stabilised.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
China (mainland) N Extant Yes Yes
India V Extinct Yes
Japan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan V Extant
Mongolia N Extant Yes Yes
North Korea N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) U Extant
South Korea N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
China (mainland) Nanweng He Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qindeli Sturgeon Reserve
China (mainland) Honghe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hala Hai
China (mainland) Zhalong Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Lianhuanhu Waterbird Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qixing He Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Heiyupao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yangdali Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Hukou Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Melmeg (Momege) Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Chagan Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Xianghai Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yalu Jiang Estuary
China (mainland) Wafangdian Fuzhou Wan
China (mainland) Huret
China (mainland) Huihe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Holqin Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Beidaihe
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yubei Huanghe Gudao Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Kaifeng Liuyuankou Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Yancheng Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Chongming Dongtan Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shengjin Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Anqing wetlands (Caizi Hu, Wuchang Hu and other lakes)
China (mainland) Poyang Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Chen Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Longgan Hu Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
Japan Kumage-Yashiro
Japan Izumi, Takaono
North Korea Chongchon River estuary (including Mundok Nature Reserve)
North Korea Onchon field
North Korea Daedong Bay
North Korea Panmun field
South Korea Sihwa-ho lake
South Korea Cheonsu Bay
South Korea Suncheon Bay
South Korea Gumi Haepyeong
South Korea Junam reservoir
Mongolia Khovsgol Lake
Mongolia Ogii Lake
Mongolia Valleys of Khurkh-Khuiten Rivers
Mongolia Onon-Balj
Mongolia Mongol Daguur
Mongolia Khukh Lake
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands
Russia (Asian) Amur valley near Blagoveshensk
Russia (Asian) Middle reaches of the Iman river
Russia (Asian) Lower Bikin river (Kenihezskaya mire)
Russia (Asian) Middle reaches of the Bikin river
Russia (Asian) Shantarskiye Islands
Russia (Asian) Udyl' lake
Russia (Asian) North Baikal wetlands
Russia (Asian) Tunkin valley
Russia (Asian) Khanka plain
Russia (Asian) Zevskoye plateau
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Evoron-Chukchagirskoye depression
Russia (Asian) Argun' river
Russia (Asian) Torey lakes
Russia (Asian) Khadyn lake
South Korea Yeongam-ho lake
South Korea Nakdong-gang estuary
Mongolia Khar Yamaat Nature Reserve
Mongolia Tashgain Tavan Lakes
Mongolia Terkhiin Tsagaan Lake
Mongolia Turgen Tsagaan, Zegst, Tuulaitiyn Burd Lakes
Mongolia Ugtam Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Dazhanhe Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Fang Hu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Huanzidong
China (mainland) Jiuduansha Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Lindian County Xinxing Horse Ranch and Julang Pasture
China (mainland) Longfeng Wetland Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qidong Northern Yangtze Estuary Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Shuifeng Reservoir and middle reaches of Yalu Jiang
China (mainland) Xinqing Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhengzhou Huanghe Wetland Nature Reserve
Russia (Asian) Aginskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Bain-Tsaganskiye lakes
Russia (Asian) Valley of Barguzin

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion, Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Very Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Very Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Pollution Industrial & military effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Residential & commercial development Commercial & industrial areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Grus monacha. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 23/04/2021.