Hispaniolan Parakeet Psittacara chloropterus


Justification of Red List Category
This species has a small and fragmented population, which continues to decline as a result of habitat loss and persecution. It consequently qualifies as Vulnerable.

Population justification
The population is estimated to number 2,500-9,999 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 1,667-6,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 1,500-7,000 mature individuals. Populations in urban refuges, such as Santo Domingo (Luna et al. 2018), are however thought to be becoming increasingly significant and should such populations be accurately quantified, it may result in a larger population estimate.

Trend justification
There are no new data on population trends; however, the species is inferred to be in decline at a slow to moderate rate owing to hunting, trapping and habitat loss (S. Marsden in litt. 2017). Populations may however, be growing in urban refuges, such as Santo Domingo (Luna et al. 2018) and offsetting population declines in the species's natural habitat; further research is required to quantify such trends.

Distribution and population

Psittacara chloroptera occurs in Haiti and the Dominican Republic, with feral populations in Puerto Rico (to USA) (Juniper and Parr 1998, Raffaele et al. 1998) and possibly Florida, USA (Juniper and Parr 1998) and Guadeloupe (to France) (Raffaele et al. 1998). The extinct race maugei formerly occurred on Isla Mona in Puerto Rico (Raffaele et al. 1998), but went extinct around 1900 (Fuller 2000). It is now generally rare with isolated populations in the Cordillera Central and Sierra de Bahoruco, and potentially increasing populations in urban refuges, such as Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (S. Latta in litt. 1998, S. Mardsen in litt. 2017, Luna et al. 2018). Recent records from Monte Cristi and Ebano Verde may represent additional local populations (S. Latta in litt. 1998). Its status in Haiti is unclear. It has been suggested that it may be extinct in Haiti (Juniper and Parr 1998), and the species was not recorded in the previously inhabited La Viste National Park in 2000 (Dávalos and Brooks 2001), but there are also claims that it is common in the Massif de la Selle and la Citadelle area of the Massif du Nord (Raffaele et al. 1998).


It inhabits all kinds of natural habitat from montane forest to arid lowland forest, palm-savannah and open woodland, and ranges into agricultural land and second growth (Juniper and Parr 1998). Significant numbers have also been witnessed in urban environments, such as Santo Domingo, in recent years (S. Marsden in litt. 2017, Luna et al. 2018). It occupies a wide altitudinal range from the lowlands to 3,000 m (Juniper and Parr 1998). Nesting takes place in tree-cavities or arboreal termite nests (Juniper and Parr 1998).


Habitat loss and persecution as a crop-pest are the greatest threats to this species. It is exploited for local and international trade, but only 12 wild-caught individuals were reported in international trade in 1991-1995 (Snyder et al. 2000).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
CITES Appendix II. In the Dominican Republic, it is legally protected against hunting and trapping, but this legislation is not adequately enforced (Snyder et al. 2000). An education strategy with community participation has been launched for the protection of this species (Vásquez et al. 1995). Interactions between this species and Olive-throated Parakeet Aratinga nana (because of the recent increase in numbers of A. nana in the Sierra de Baoruco [S. Latta in litt. 1998]) are being investigated (Anon. 2007). A volunteer parrot protection group is to be set up and damaged nest cavities refurbished (Anon. 2007).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Clarify the status of the species in Haiti. Study ecology and breeding success to determine natural limiting factors. Enforce existing legislation in the Dominican Republic. Undertake surveys to determine the population size and trends in urban refuges.


30-33 cm. Plain green parakeet with red carpal and underwing-coverts. Bare white orbital ring, yellowish-green underside of flight feathers and tail and sometimes red feathers on head. Similar spp. Introduced Olive-throated Parakeet A. nana is smaller, duller green and lacks any red. Voice Screeching calls in flight and when perched. A. nana is higher-pitched.


Text account compilers
Everest, J.

Benstead, P., Harding, M., Isherwood, I., Khwaja, N., Latta, S., Mahood, S., Sharpe, C.J. & Wege, D.

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Psittacara chloropterus. Downloaded from on 22/06/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 22/06/2021.