VU
Highland Guan Penelopina nigra



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2cd+3cd+4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2008 Vulnerable A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2007 Vulnerable
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass 890 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 198,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 13,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals good suspected 2007
Population trend Decreasing good suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.7 - - -

Population justification: A recent extrapolation estimates that all remaining habitat could support a total population of c. 91,000 individuals, although this figure is declining rapidly and this trend is likely to continue (Eisermann et al. 2006).

Trend justification: The area of remaining habitat is declining rapidly and this trend is likely to continue (Eisermann et al. 2006). Habitat alteration and hunting pressure are the principal threats, both of which are increasing owing to an expanding human population. The species is therefore suspected to be declining rapidly.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
El Salvador N Possibly Extinct Yes
Guatemala N Extant Yes
Honduras N Extant Yes
Mexico N Extant Yes
Nicaragua N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
El Salvador Montecristo Forest
El Salvador The Alotepeque Range
Guatemala Antigua Guatemala
Guatemala Atitlan
Guatemala Cerro El Amay
Guatemala Cuchumatanes
Guatemala Cuilco
Guatemala Guatemalan Caribbean Slope
Guatemala Montecristo
Guatemala Sacranix
Guatemala Santiaguito Volcano (part of Guatemalan/Mexican Pacific Coastal Mountains AZE)
Guatemala Sierra de las Minas - Motagua
Guatemala Tacana - Tajumulco (part of Guatemalan/Mexican Pacific Coastal Mountains AZE)
Guatemala Yalijux
Honduras Celaque
Honduras Cerro Azul Meambar
Honduras Comayagua
Honduras Cusuco
Honduras Güisayote
Honduras La Muralla
Honduras La Tigra
Honduras Montaña de Yoro
Honduras Pico Bonito
Honduras Sierra de Agalta
Mexico Corridor Lagoon Belgium-Sierra Lemon-Canyon Drain
Mexico Mount Blue
Mexico Mountain Chixtontic-Mountain Canjá
Mexico Sierra de Zongolica y Tenango
Mexico The Ocote
Mexico The Sepulchre
Mexico The Tacaná
Mexico The Triunfo
Nicaragua Apante Hill
Nicaragua Arenal Hill
Nicaragua Bosawas
Nicaragua Datanlí-El Diablo Hill
Nicaragua El Jaguar
Nicaragua Miraflor

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 700 - 3300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Penelopina nigra. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/09/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 19/09/2018.