Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus


Taxonomic note

Circus cyaneus and C. hudsonius (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as C. cyaneus following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2014 Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 34,800,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 52,200,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 100000-499999 2012
Population trend Decreasing estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 7.8 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 30,000-54,400 breeding females, which equates to 60,000-109,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Europe forms approximately 34% of the global range, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 176,000-321,000 mature individuals, although further validation of this estimate is needed. It is placed in the band 100,000 to 499,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population trend is difficult to determine because of uncertainty over the impacts of habitat modification on population sizes. However in Europe the population size is estimated and projected to be decreasing at a rate approaching 30% over the period from 2000, when the decline is estimated to have started in Russia, which holds 70% of the European population, to 2024 (three generations) (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Andorra V Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bahrain V Extant Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes Yes
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Cambodia N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
Croatia N Extant Yes Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland V Extant
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malaysia V Extant
Malta N Extant
Moldova N Extant Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
North Korea N Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal V Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Singapore V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan V Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Vietnam N Extant
Yemen V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Akrotiri salt-lake including Bishop's Pool
Cyprus Pafos Plain
Czechia Sumava mountains (Bohemian forest)
Czechia Dehtár pond
Serbia Pašnjaci Velike Droplje
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Azerbaijan Absheron archipelago (north) and Pirallahi bay
Belarus Balota Zvaniec
Belarus Balota Jel'nia
Belarus Kaz'jany
Liechtenstein Ruggeller Riet, Talgebiet
Estonia Puhatu mire
Estonia Alam-Pedja
Latvia Teici and Pelecare bogs
Latvia Berzpils bogs and flood-plains
Latvia Pape
Latvia Dviete flood-plain
Latvia Skrunda fish-ponds
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Portugal Gerês mountains
Portugal Montesinho and Nogueira mountains
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Yatata
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Suha Reka
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Hagieni forest
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Mures river lower flood-plain
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Ireland Wicklow Mountains
Slovenia Ljubljansko moor
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia River Drava
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart
Belgium Polderkomplex
Belgium Zwin
Belgium Krekengebied
Belgium Durme en Middenloop van de Schelde
Belgium De Maatjes, Wuustwezel Heide en Groot Schietveld
Belgium Kalmthoutse Heide
Belgium Ronde Put
Belgium Vallei van de Zwarte Beek
Belgium Vijverkomplex van Midden Limburg
Belgium Bokrijk
Belgium De Dijlevallei
Belgium Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse
Belgium Croix-Scaille
Belgium Lesse et Lomme
Belgium Marche en Famenne
Belgium Saint-Hubert
Belgium Ochamp-Freux
Belgium Malchamps
Belgium Hautes Fagnes/Eifel
Belgium Vallée de la Lienne
Belgium Tailles
Belgium Haute Sûre/Ardenne méridionale
Belgium Sinémurienne
Belgium Côte Bajocienne
Belgium Vallée de la Dyle
Moldova Lower Prut River and Manta-Beleu Lake
Sweden River Klingaälv – Lake Kranke
Sweden River Helge
Sweden Getterön
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Lake Dättern
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Lake Kvismaren
Sweden Lake Ånn – Storlien
Sweden River Ume Delta and Plains
Sweden Vindel Mountains (including Lake Tärna)
Sweden Lake Tjålme – Valley of Lais
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Sweden Lake Persöfjärden
Sweden Sjaunja
Sweden Tavvavouma
Sweden Archipelago and coastline of North-East Scania
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Szczecin lagoon
Poland Rozwarowo Marshes
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Slupia River Valley
Poland Slowinska Site
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Obra river flood-plain
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Przemków ponds
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Turawa reservoir
Poland Gorce mountains
Poland Bieszczady Mountains
Poland Chelm calcareous marshes
Poland Bubnow Marsh
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Bialowieza Forest
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Oswin site
Poland Nietlice marshes
Poland Luknajno lake
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Kampinos forest
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Gródek-Michalowo basin
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Przemysl Plateau
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Narew river gaps
Poland Niepolomice forest
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Greece Evros delta
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Lake Pikrolimni
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Netherlands Wadden Sea
Netherlands Duinen en Lage Land Texel
Netherlands Duinen Vlieland
Netherlands Terschelling: De Boschplaat
Netherlands Duinen Terschelling
Netherlands Duinen Ameland
Netherlands Duinen Schiermonnikoog
Netherlands Bargerveen
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Rauma and Luvia archipelagos
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Talaskangas
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Ruunaa
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Patvinsuo National Park
Finland Viklinrimpi
Finland Outokumpu wetlands
Finland Koitajoki area
Finland Värtsilä valley
Finland Alajoki
Finland Lålby fields
Finland Luoto archipelago
Finland Ahmasjärvi lake
Finland Litokaira
Finland Olvassuo-Oravisuo-Näätäsuo-Sammakkosuo
Finland Haapavesi wetlands
Finland Pajupuronsuo-Isosuo-Kivisuo
Finland Oulanka-Sukerijärvi
Finland Syöte-Salmitunturi
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Elimyssalo
Finland Rumala-Kuvaja-Oudonrimmet
Finland Tornionjoki Delta
Finland Kilsiaapa-Ristivuoma
Finland Martimoaapa-Lumiaapa-Penikat
Finland Veittiaapa-Ristiaapa
Finland Karunginjärvi lake
Finland Runkaus-Saariaapa-Tainijärvet
Finland Kemihaara (Vuotos) mires and forests
Finland Sammutinjänkä-Vaijoenjänkä
Finland Pöyrisvuoma mire protection area
Finland Lämsänaapa-Sakkala-aapa
Finland Joutsenaapa-Kaita-aapa
Finland Riisitunturi
Finland Luosto
Finland Kevo
Finland South-eastern Kittilä mires
Finland Maltio fjelds
Finland Värriö-Tuntsa
Finland Pallas and Ylläs fjelds
Finland Pomokaira-Koitelaiskaira
Finland Saariselkä and Koilliskaira
Finland Lemmenjoki-Hammastunturi-Pulju
Finland Käsivarsi fjelds
Finland Lätäseno and Jietajoki mires
Hungary Tápió valley
Russia (European) Sources of Osuga river
Russia (European) Smolenskoye Poozer'ye
Russia (European) Zavoronezhski area
Russia (European) Kraka Mountain
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas)
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes
Russia (European) Dedinovo flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Zhestyanka
Spain Ancares mountains
Spain Muniellos
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Gistreo and Coto mountain ranges
Spain Riaño
Spain Fuentes Carrionas
Spain Peña Labra and Cordel mountain ranges
Spain La Cabrera mountain range
Spain Montes Aquilanos range
Spain Humada-Peña Amaya
Spain Upper Ebro and Rudrón canyons
Spain Oña and Tesla mountain ranges
Spain La Losa-Orduña (Salvada mountain range)
Spain Izki mountains
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Talamanca-Camarma
Spain La Demanda mountains
Spain Urbión and Cebollera Mountain Ranges
Spain Fresser-Setcases
Spain Cadí mountains
Spain Tormos reservoir (La Sotonera)
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Wetlands of western Almería
Spain Tierra de Campos steppes
Spain Ravines and pinewoods in central Minorca
Ukraine Polis'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Tyligul's'kyj lyman
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Supij marsh
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Turiya river valley
Ukraine Stokhod river valley
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Gorges de la Sioule
France Monts et Plomb du Cantal
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
France Montagne de la Serre
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Les Couzes Nord
France Les Couzes Sud
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Pointe de Grave
France Champ de Tir du Poteau
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Col de Lizarrieta
France Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Arjuzanx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Haute Cize : Pic d'Errozate et Forêt d'Orion
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Forêt de Citeaux et environs
France Forêt de Châtillon et environs
France Arrière Côte de Dijon et de Beaune
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Havre de la Sienne
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Forêts du Perche
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Plateau Ardennais
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Barois et Forêt de Clairvaux
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Confluent des vallées de la Meuse et de la Chiers
France Bassigny
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Petite Beauce
France Vallée de l'Yèvre
France Brenne centrale
France Brenne Sud
France Queue de Brenne : Etang des Loges, Grand et Petit Mez
France Brenne: Forêt de la Petite-Brenne
France Brenne: Forêt de Lancosme
France Vallée de la Loire : confluence Loire-Vienne
France Basse vallée de L'Indre
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Forêt de Chaux
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Boucle de Moisson
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Plateau de Delme, Val de Petite Seille
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Fresnes-en-Woëvre-Mars-la-Tour
France Bazoncourt-Vigy
France Forêt de la Reine
France Etang des Landes
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Gorges de la Dordogne
France Montagne de la Clape
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Hautes Corbières
France Basses Corbières
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Hautes garrigues du Montpellierais
France Etang du Bagnas
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Minervois
France Parc National des Cévennes
France Montagnes de Marcou, de l'Espinouse et du Caroux
France Vallée de Melles, cols d'Aoueran et d'Artisagou et Mont Vallier
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Estuaire de la Canche
France Marais de Balançon et de Villiers
France Cap Gris-nez
France Plateaux agricoles des environs de Frencq
France Forêts de Thiérache : Trelon, Fourmies, Hirson et St-Michel
France Camargue
France Crau
France Montagne Sainte-Victoire
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Massif du Petit Lubéron
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Plateau de Valensole
France Plateau de l'Arbois, garrigues de Lancon et chaîne des Côtes
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Marais de Manteyer
France Bois du Chapitre
France Bec de Crigne
France Parc National du Mercantour
France Préalpes de Grasse
France Parc National des Ecrins
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Plaine de Niort (sud-est)
France Plaine de Niort (nord-ouest)
France Plaines de Saint-Jouin de Marne et d'Assais-les-Jumeaux
France Le Pinail, Forêt de Moulière et bois du Défens
France Plateau de Bellefonds
France Plaines de Mirebeau et de Neuville-du-Poitou
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Marais et estuaire de la Seudre
France Plaine de Villefagnan
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais de la rive nord
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Forêts picardes : Compiègne, Laigue, Ourscamp
France Forêts picardes : massif de Retz
France Marais de Sacy
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Marais de la Souche
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Forêt du Gavre
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Plaine calcaire du sud Vendée
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Col de l'Escrinet
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
United Kingdom Abernethy Forest
United Kingdom Berwyn
United Kingdom Bowland Fells
United Kingdom Cairngorms
United Kingdom Caithness Lochs
United Kingdom Glen Affric to Strathconon
United Kingdom Dorset Heaths and Forests
United Kingdom Glen Tanar
United Kingdom Greenlaw Moor
United Kingdom Hoy
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Loch of Isbister
United Kingdom Loch of Strathbeg
United Kingdom Loch Ruthven
United Kingdom Mointeach Scadabhaigh
United Kingdom Loch Shin and nearby lochs
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Broadland
United Kingdom North Inverness Lochs
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
United Kingdom Caithness and Sutherland Peatlands
United Kingdom Pettigoe Plateau
United Kingdom Ribble and Alt Estuaries
United Kingdom River Spey - Insh Marshes
United Kingdom Rousay
United Kingdom Uists Machairs, Lochs and Coast
United Kingdom Stodmarsh
United Kingdom New Forest
United Kingdom The Oa
United Kingdom Thorne and Hatfield Moors
United Kingdom Ornkey Mainland Moors
United Kingdom Muirkirk and North Lowther Uplands
United Kingdom Antrim Hills
United Kingdom Cromdale Hills
United Kingdom Forest of Clunie
United Kingdom Ladder Hills
United Kingdom Cnuic Agus Cladach Mhuile
United Kingdom Langholm - Newcastleton Hills
United Kingdom North Lowther Hills
United Kingdom Salisbury Plain
United Kingdom Arran Moors
United Kingdom Ballaugh Curraghs
United Kingdom Isle of Man Hills
United Kingdom West Coast of Benbecula
Italy Gran Paradiso
Italy Lake Candia
Italy Mount Beigua
Italy Maritime Alps
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy Grigne
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy Iseo peatlands
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Caorle lagoon
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Po Delta
Italy Valle Bertuzzi and Goro lagoon
Italy Piave river
Italy Ortazzo and Ortazzino
Italy Ponte Buriano-Lago della Penna
Italy Diaccia Botrona
Italy Uccellina mountains, Trappola marshes and Ombrone mouth
Italy Orbetello lagoon and Burano lake
Italy Lake Trasimeno
Italy Lake Alviano
Italy Circeo National Park
Italy River Biferno
Italy Gargano promontory
Italy Manfredonia Gulf wetlands
Italy Le Cesine
Italy Marchesato and River Neto
Italy Central Campidano
Italy Oristano wetlands
Italy Colostrai pool
Italy Simeto mouth and middle course and Biviere di Lentini
Italy Ticino river
Italy Costa Viola
Italy Mount Conero
Italy Crete Senesi
Italy Vercelli rice-fields
Italy Mount Grappa
Italy Carniche pre-Alps
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Italy Daunia mountains
Italy Middle valley of Tagliamento river
Luxembourg Aspelt - Lannebur, am Kessel
Czechia Doupov hills
Romania Defileul Inferior al Mureşului
Denmark Ulvedybet and Nibe Bredning
Denmark Ho Bugt meadows
Denmark Ribe Holme and meadows at Kongeåen
Denmark Rømø
Denmark Kallesmærsk Hede, Grærup Langsø and surrounding areas
Denmark Tissø, Lille Åmose and Hallenslev Mose
Denmark Saltholm
Denmark Vestamager and adjacent sea area
Denmark Skjern Å
Denmark Lille Vildmose
Denmark Eastern part of Vejlerne
Denmark Western part of Vejlerne, Arup Holm and Hovsør Røn
Denmark Borris Hede
Denmark Fanø
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Meskheti
Slovakia Senné
Norway Dovrefjell
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Austria Middle Kamp valley
Germany Flensburger Innen- and Aussenförde
Germany Selenter See
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Tinner Dose and Staverner Dose
Germany Ostfriesische Meere
Germany Hamme lowlands
Germany Dümmer
Germany Diepholzer Moorniederung and Siedener Moor
Germany Drömling (Niedersachsen)
Germany Bastau lowlands
Germany Rhine flats Altlußheim-Mannheim
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Danube valley Untermarchtal-Ulm
Germany Federseeried
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Vogelfreistätte Alter and Neuer See
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Danube valley: Neu-Ulm - Lauingen incl. Faiminger Stausee, Donau-Moos, and Gundelfinger Moos
Germany Donau-Auen and Donau-Ried: Höchstädt - Donauwörth
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Ammersee
Germany Starnberger See
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Lewitz
Germany Eastern shore of Lake Müritz, Grosser Schwerin and Steinhorn
Germany Southern Tollense basin
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Zerbster Land
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Hellwegbörde
Germany Bogs and heathlands of the Westmünsterland
Germany Wahner Heide
Germany Döberitzer Heide
Germany Bliesgau
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Werderland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Rieselfelder Münster
Germany Emsaue (Rietberger Emsniederung - Steinhorster Becken)
Germany Oppenweher Moor
Germany Medebacher Bucht
Germany Sennelager training area
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Landgraben and Dumme lowlands
Germany Kleinringer and Großringer Wösten
Germany Groß Fullener Moor
Germany Leeg-, Melm- and Kuhdammoor
Germany Leda-Jümme lowlands
Germany Wesuwer Brook
Germany Südradde lowlands
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Norden-Esens, inland
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Lowlands of River Ems near Lathen
Germany Lowlands of the Rivers Eider, Treene and Sorge
Germany Duvenstedter Brook
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Rothenbach pond
Germany Reichlos pond
Germany Alluvion of the middle Horloff
Germany Twiste reservior
Germany Untersee of Lake Constance
Germany South-eastern Alb and Upper Danube valley
Germany Rhine flats Neuenburg - Breisach
Croatia Turopolje
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Kopacki Rit Special Zoological Reserve
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Iraq Shatt Al Arab marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Upper and middle reaches of river Krückau with tributaries
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Recknitz and Trebel valley
Germany Elbe valley of Mecklenburg
Germany Eschebrügger Wösten
Germany Engdener Wüste
Germany Gildehauser Venn
Germany Huvenhoopsmor and Breddorfer Wiesen
Germany Drennhauser Hinterdeich
Germany Oppenweher Moor
Germany Großes Moor near Gifhorn
Germany Georgsdorfer and Dalum-Wietmarscher Moor and Alte Piccardie
Germany Wetterau
Germany Farmlands Lich-Utphe
Germany Hedges and orchards areas in the Lumda valley
Germany Lower Gersprenz lowlands incl. Reinheim pond
Germany Nordpfälzer Bergland and surroundings (Schalloden-bach to Bechenheim)
Germany Mittlere Schwäbische Alb with Albuch, Härtsfeld and Schmiechener See
Germany Renchniederung
Germany Kinzig- und Schutterniederung between Niederschopfheim and Kehl
Germany Elzniederung between Kenzingen and Rust
Germany Baar
Germany Danube valley Scheer-Zwiefaltendorf
Germany Ingerkinger Moore and adjoining forests
Germany Donauried
Germany Pfrunger and Burgweiler Ried
Poland Pasleka river valley
Belarus Chavanščyna
Belarus Čyrvonaje
Belarus L'va floodplain
Belarus Vieluta
Belarus Vydryca
Belarus Liebiadziny Moch
Belarus Cikiny astravy
Belarus Staraja Vic'
Belarus Dražbitka-Svina
Estonia Lahemaa
Estonia Taarikõnnu-Kaisma
Estonia Väinameri
Italy Valli Bolognesi
Czechia Komarov
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (Central Asian) Kurtuguz Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Yarovskoe marsh
Latvia Randu meadows
Latvia Kuja
Latvia Kemeri national park
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Western Strandzha
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Mesta Valley
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Portugal Serras do Alvão e Marão
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Lebanon Qadisha Valley
Russia (European) Kurmyshskaya flood-land
Russia (European) Forest in the middle reaches of Serezha river
Russia (European) Shumerlinskaya
Russia (European) Floodplain of Pjana river near village Sarga
Russia (European) Floodplain of Moksha river and Common Crane autumn aggegation near villages Khohlikha and Shaprikha
Russia (European) Floodplain of Rudnya river and surroundings
Slovenia Črete
United Kingdom Slieve Beagh - Mullaghfad - Lisnaskea
United Kingdom Strath Fleet and Strath Carnaig Moor
United Kingdom Renfrewshire Heights
United Kingdom Migneint - Arenig - Dduallt
United Kingdom Glen App and Galloway Moors
Kazakhstan Shaglyteniz Lake and marshes
Poland Wizna Swamps
Poland Wkra and Mlawka Rivers Valleys
Poland Upper Nurzec River Valley
Poland Skaliskie Forest
Poland Orzysz Military Area
Poland Samica Valley
Poland Warmia Site
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Goleniow Forest
Poland Trzebiatow Site
Poland Drawa River Site
Poland Forest at Drawa River
Poland Zgierzynieckie Lake
Poland Middle Odra River Valley
Poland Rogalin Site
Poland Calowanie Swamp
Poland Lower Notec River Valley
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Bielawa Swamps
Poland Pilica River Valley
Poland Notec Forest
Poland Beskid Niski Mountains
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Bzura River Valley
Kazakhstan Paradise Valley mountain plateau
Russia (Asian) Perovo lake
Poland Lower Narew River Valley
Poland Roztocze
Italy River Po: from Ticino mouth to Boscone island
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Ukraine Buzhok river valley (Anastavtsi)
Ukraine Zakaznyk Domuzaly
Ukraine Upper of r.Mokra Sura
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Ukraine Voloshans'ka dacha
Ukraine Komisarovskyj Forest
Ukraine Elanetskyj step Reserve
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine River Tysa Valley
Ukraine Desna river part of National Nature Park "Desnyans'ko-Staroguts'kyj"
Italy Albegna river valley
Romania Dealurile Târnavelor - Valea Nirajului
Romania Giurgeu Depression
Romania Podişul Hârtibaciului
Romania Dealurile Nordice ale Munţilor Făgăraş
Romania Râului Negru valley
Romania Măcin - Niculiţel
Romania Dealurile Dorobanţu
Romania Stepa Casimcea
Romania Dumbrăveni - Plopeni
Russia (European) Zalazniki, Beli, Urino and Leskovo area
Russia (European) Rychkovskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Karabash-Kudashskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Pis'myanskiye Gori area
Ireland Slieve Bloom Mountains
Ireland Slieve Aughty Mountains
Ireland Stacks to Mullaghareirk Mountains, West Limerick and Mount Eagle
Ireland Boggerah and Derrynasaggart Mountains
Ireland Slieve Felim and Silvermine Mountains
Ireland Slieve Beagh
Ireland Ballyhoura Mountains
Ireland Nagles Mountains
Ireland Blue Stack Mountains, Pettigo Plateau and South Donegal
Luxembourg Valley of the Trëtterbaach
Luxembourg Valley of the Attert
Luxembourg Region of Junglinster
Luxembourg Region of Mompach, Manternach, Bech and Osweiler
Luxembourg Valley of the Woltz
Ireland West Clare Uplands
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Poland Beskid Wyspowy Mountains
Poland Lower San River Valley
Poland Lower Wieprz River Valley
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley
Poland Stobrawa Watershed
Poland Wloszczowa Basin
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Kwiecewo Site
Poland Satopy-Samulewo Site
Poland Hel Peninsula
Poland Sandomierz Forest
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
United Kingdom Airds Moss and Muirkirk Uplands
United Kingdom North Pennine Moors
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Kyrgyzstan Tulek Valley
Poland Turek Site
Poland Vistula Spit
United Kingdom Grampian Mountains
Bosnia and Herzegovina Livno karst field and Busko lake
Serbia Gornja Mostonga
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Denmark Ringkøbing Fjord
Denmark Vadehavet (Wadden Sea)
Estonia Kõrgessaare-Mudaste coast
Estonia Tuhu-Kesu
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Morocco Merja Bargha
Morocco Merja Halloufa
Morocco Merja Zerga
Morocco Sebkha Bou Areg
Morocco Embouchure Oued Moulouya
Morocco Barrage al Massira
Estonia Agusalu
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Kazakhstan Shoshkakol Lakes
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Tounsor Hollow Lakes
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Netherlands Oostvoornse Meer
Netherlands Susteren - Roermond
Netherlands Drentsche Aa-gebied
Netherlands Margraten e.o.
Netherlands Oenkerk, Giekerk e.o.
Netherlands Oldambt
Estonia Kõnnumaa-Väätsa
Estonia Lavassaare
Sweden Muddus
Sweden Påkketan
Sweden Lake Laidaure
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Sweden Lake Kävsjön – Store Mosse
Sweden Kullaberg
Serbia Carska Bara
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Okanj I Rusanda
Serbia Forests of West Backa
Bosnia and Herzegovina Duvanjsko polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Glamočko polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Kupreško polje
Bosnia and Herzegovina Mostarsko Blato

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable breeding
Forest Boreal suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Shrubland Boreal suitable breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Shrubland Temperate suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 5000 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Wood & pulp plantations - Agro-industry plantations Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Reduced reproductive success
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Abstraction of surface water (unknown use) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Circus cyaneus. Downloaded from on 26/01/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 26/01/2021.