VU
Helmeted Woodpecker Celeus galeatus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Hylatomus galeatus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) has been demonstrated by Benz et al. (2015) and Lammertink et al. (2016) to be a mimic of American species in the genus Hylatomus, and is actually appropriately placed within Celeus. All members of Hylatomus were previously placed in the genus Dryocopus.

Taxonomic source(s)
Benz, B. W., Robbins, M. B.; Zimmer, K. J. 2015. Phylogenetic relationships of the Helmeted Woodpecker (Dryocopus galeatus): A case of interspecific mimicry? Auk 132(4): 938-950.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Lammertink, M., Kopuchian, C., Brandl, H. B., Tubaro, P. L., & Winkler, H. 2016. A striking case of deceptive woodpecker colouration: the threatened Helmeted Woodpecker Dryocopus galeatus belongs in the genus Celeus. Journal of Ornithology, 157(1): 109-116.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2020 Vulnerable C2a(i)
2016 Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c;C2a(i)
2012 Vulnerable A2c+3c+4c;C2a(i)
2011 Vulnerable A2c; A3c; A4c; C2a(i)
2008 Vulnerable A2c; A3c; A4c
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Endangered
1994 Endangered
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 412,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 700-21000, 3600 poor estimated 2020
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 10-15 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 10-15 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 4.86 - - -

Population justification: The species is rare or very uncommon at all known sites, and is absent from some areas of apparently suitable habitat (Lammertink et al. 2011). It occurs at higher densities in old-growth forest, where it may reach densities of one territory per 3-5 km2 (Brooks et al. 1993, in Lammertink et al. 2020), which is assumed to equate to approximately 0.4-0.67 mature individuals per km2. In disturbed forests, densities as low as one territory per 135-210 kmhave been recorded (Lammertink et al. 2011, 2020), assumed to equate to approximately 0.010-0.015 mature individuals per km2. In Misiones, encounter rates were reported at a ratio of 1:0.18 in primary and disturbed forests, respectively (Lammertink et al. 2011); applying this ratio to the densities found in old-growth forest would produce densities in disturbed forest of 0.07-0.12 mature individuals per km2.

According to Lammertink et al. (2020), the forested area within the species's range is between 25,000 and 40,000 km2, but based on the mapped range, in 2010, there were approximately 135,000 kmof tree cover (with at least 50% canopy cover) within the range (Global Forest Watch 2020). Less than 1% of forest within the range is thought to be primary forest (Lammertink et al. 2020).

The species's population size has previously been suspected to be fewer than 10,000 mature individuals (A. Bodrati in litt. 2010, G. Kohler in litt. 2010, M. Lammertink in litt. 2010, A. E. Rupp in litt. 2010, Lammertink et al. 2012). More recently, it has been estimated to be between 400 and 8,900 individuals (Lammertink et al. 2020), and thought more likely to be larger than 2,500 mature individuals (M. Lammertink in litt. 2020). The population in Brazil is suspected to be smaller than 2,500 mature individuals (Pinto Marques et al. 2018).

Assuming a total area of habitat of 25,000-135,000 km2, that 1% of the total area of habitat has a population density of 0.4-0.67 mature individuals per km2, a further 9% has an intermediate density of 0.2-0.4 mature individuals per km2, and that the remainder of the area of habitat is occupied at densities of 0.01-0.12 mature individuals per km2, the population size is here estimated to lie between 775 and 20,259 mature individuals, rounded to 700-21,000 mature individuals. Given the species's apparent scarcity at well observed sites (M. Lammertink in litt. 2010), and preference for larger tracts of mature forest, the true population size is likely to fall towards the lower end of this range, with a precautionary best estimate here placed at 3,621 mature individuals (rounded to 3,600), based on an area of habitat of 40,000 km2 and the means of the density estimates described above.

Since the remaining habitat is composed of small, isolated patches, it is assumed that the species is fragmented into small subpopulations, each of which contains no more than 1,000 mature individuals. Density estimates suggest that there are subpopulations with more than 250 mature individuals (M. Lammertink in litt. 2020).

Trend justification: Although rates of deforestation in its range are thought to have decreased in recent years (R. Clay in litt. 2007, A. Bodrati in litt. 2010, G. Kohler in litt. 2010), this species's population is still thought to be undergoing a decline on the basis of continued habitat destruction, degradation and fragmentation (Pinto Marques et al. 2018, Lammertink et al. 2020).

Over 15 years from 2004-2019, approximately 16% of tree cover with at least 75% canopy cover was lost within the species's range (Global Forest Watch 2020). The population size is therefore inferred to be declining.

Extrapolating to 2020 and scaling to 14.58 years, approximately 15% of tree cover with at least 75% canopy cover is estimated to have been lost within the species's range over the past three generations. Although the species occurs in selectively-logged forest, it occurs at higher densities in mature forest and is thought to be dependent on cavities in large trees (Lammertink et al. 2019). The population size is therefore suspected to have undergone a reduction of 10-15% over the past three generations. Assuming the rate of deforestation continues into the future, the population size is suspected to decline by 10-15% over the next three generations.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Extant Yes
Brazil N Extant Yes
Paraguay N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Paraguay Bosque Mbaracayú
Paraguay Parque Nacional San Rafael
Paraguay Arroyo Blanco
Argentina Parque Nacional Iguazú y alrededores
Argentina Parque Provincial Uruzú y Reserva Forestal San Jorge
Argentina Corredor Urugua-í Foerster
Argentina Parque Provincial Guardaparque Horacio Foerster
Argentina San Antonio
Argentina Sierra Morena
Argentina Cuenca del Piray Miní
Argentina Alta cuenca del arroyo Alegría
Argentina Alta cuenca del arroyo Piray Guazú
Argentina San Pedro
Argentina Reserva Privada Yaguaroundí
Argentina Parque Provincial Piñalito y alrededores
Argentina Reserva de la Biósfera Yabotí
Argentina Parque Provincial Salto Encantado del Valle del Cuñá-Pirú y alrededores
Argentina Campo San Juan
Argentina Cerro Mártires y Barra Santa María
Argentina Barra Concepción
Argentina Parque Provincial Cruce Caballero
Paraguay Ypané Medio
Paraguay Paso Curuzú
Paraguay Ka'aguy Rory
Paraguay Serranías de San Joaquín
Paraguay Ybyturuzú
Paraguay Estancia Itabó
Paraguay Limoy
Paraguay Reserva Itabó - Itaipú
Paraguay Parque Nacional Caazapá
Paraguay Tapyta
Paraguay Estancia Muxfeldt
Argentina Parque Provincial Urugua-í
Paraguay Morombi
Brazil Parque Estadual do Rio Guarani
Brazil Parque Nacional do Iguaçu
Brazil Baía da Babitonga
Brazil Guaraqueçaba / Jacupiranga / Cananéia
Brazil Maciço Florestal de Paranapiacaba
Brazil Parque Estadual do Turvo

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 0 - 950 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Natural system modifications Dams & water management/use - Large dams Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem conversion
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Transportation & service corridors Roads & railroads Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Celeus galeatus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/06/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/06/2022.