EN
Hainan Peacock-pheasant Polyplectron katsumatae



Justification

Justification of Red List Category
This recently split species is listed as Endangered as it has very small population which is estimated to have undergone a very rapid decline owing to habitat loss and hunting. Surveys are urgently required to obtain an up-to-date population estimate, and should the population be smaller than currently thought the species may warrant uplisting to Critically Endangered in the near future.

Population justification
The population was estimated at 300 individuals in 2000. However, this is considered to be an underestimate (Liang Wei in litt. 2010, Zhang Zhengwang in litt. 2010). Based on an estimated population of 2,700 individuals in 1990, and assuming the population has declined at 50-79% over the past 15 years (three generations), the population is best placed in the band 250-999 mature individuals. This equates to 375-1,499 individuals in total, rounded here to 350-1,500 individuals. However, further surveys are urgently required to assess the true population size.

Trend justification
The population was estimated at 2,700 in 1990, and at 300 in 2000 (Chang et al. 2008). Although extrapolation from these figures would represent a decline of 96% over the last 15 years (three generations), the latter is considered to be an underestimate (Liang Wei in litt. 2010, Zhang Zhengwang in litt. 2010), and as such population declines are not considered to be so marked. However, the population is suspected to have declined very rapidly as a result of habitat destruction and hunting, and the species has apparently become increasingly rare (Liang Wei in litt. 2010, Zhang Zhengwang in litt. 2010), hence a decline of 50-79% is estimated.

Distribution and population

Polyplectron katsumatae is endemic to the island of Hainan, China (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Madge and McGowan 2002, Chang et al. 2008, Collar 2009). As a result of habitat loss and hunting, both its range and population have dramatically declined since the 1950s, with the remaining population fragmented into small, partially isolated subpopulations (Chang et al. 2008). The total population was estimated at 2,700 individuals in 1990, and at only 300 individuals in 2000 (Chang et al. 2008). Although the latter is probably an underestimate of the true population size, the population is likely to have declined rapidly owing to habitat loss and hunting (Liang Wei in litt. 2010, Zhang Zhengwang in litt. 2010).

Ecology

This species inhabits dense evergreen and semi-evergreen forests from 600-1200 m, and can also survive in secondary habitats, but presumably only in mature secondary habitat (del Hoyo et al. 1994, Madge and McGowan 2002).

Threats

Habitat loss and hunting appear to have caused declines since the 1950s, and continue to be significant threats to the species (Chang et al. 2008, Liang Wei in litt. 2010, Zhang Zhengwang in litt. 2010). By the 1980s only c.10% of Hainan remained forested (Chang et al. 2008).

Conservation actions

Conservation Actions Underway
This species is known from three natural reserves on Hainan, although their effectiveness in terms of protecting the population is uncertain; at least one, Ba Wang Ling, is probably not effective (del Hoyo et al. 1994). A captive stock is held by the South China Institute for Endangered Animals (Davison et al. 2012).

Conservation Actions Proposed
Conduct a population census to assess the true population size, and develop monitoring techniques to establish populations trends. Assess the extent of habitat loss and hunting on the island, and develop measures to mitigate both threats. Establish further protected areas and ensure effective enforcement within their boundaries. Enforce regulations within current protected areas. Raise awareness for the current conservation status of the species and develop captive-breeding programmes for future population supplementation and reintroduction.

Identification

53cm. Forward-pointing bushy crest and vermiculated grey-brown plumage. Extensive, large ocelli on upperparts, each spot green or blue with buffish or bold white surround. Upper throat whitish bare facial skin pinkish or yellowish. Similar spp. Grey peacock-Pheasant P. bicalcaratum is larger, has a longer crest, and smaller ocelli with less bold white surrounds. Voice Male gives a relatively loud and melodious guang-gui, with the first note being more prolonged. Female utters a more rapid ga.

Acknowledgements

Text account compilers
Calvert, R., Taylor, J.

Contributors
Liang, W., Zhang, Z.


Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2018) Species factsheet: Polyplectron katsumatae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2018. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2018) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 17/12/2018.