Hainan Peacock-pheasant Polyplectron katsumatae


Taxonomic note
Traditionally treated as a subspecies of P. bicalcaratum, but differs in size and morphology. Male katsumatae differ from males of other taxa in P. bicalcaratum in their smaller size (effect size on wing 8.57, score 3); brilliant red and more extensive vs dirty grey to pale yellow and less extensive facial skin (3); green vs purplish ocelli, with a somewhat different shape (2); lack of elongate crown feathers (1); darker crown (1); more densely and neatly vermiculated body plumage (ns1); browner vs greyer overall coloration (ns1) (Collar 2009, Davison et al. 2012, Pilgrim et al. 2009). Iris colour may also be a character, and the taxa are in fact not each other’s closest relatives, bicalcaratum being sister to P. chalcurum with P. inopinatum sister to this pair (Chang Jiang et al. 2008, Davison et al. 2012). Monotypic.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(i) C2a(i); D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Endangered C2a(i)
2016 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd;C2a(i)
2013 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd;C2a(i)
2012 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd;C2a(i)
2010 Endangered A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d; C2a(i)
2008 Not Recognised
2004 Not Recognised
2000 Not Recognised
1994 Not Recognised
1988 Not Recognised
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 10,100 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 800-2000 poor estimated 2018
Population trend Decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 5-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.08 - - -

Population justification: The population was estimated at 2,700 individuals in 1990 (Gao and Yu 1990). In 1993, a density (based on visual observations) of 3.74 individuals/km2 was estimated (Gao 1998). Applying this density estimate to the area of available of habitat in 2018 (per Savini et al. [2021]) of 1,663 km2 and a habitat occupancy rate of c. 0.3 inferred from camera trapping data by Mo et al. (2021) in Hainan Jianfengling National Nature Reserve, yields a more recent estimate of 1,865 individuals, equivalent to c.1,230 mature individuals. Allowing for uncertainties introduced by not using contemporaneous data sources, the population is estimated here to fall in the band 700-2,000 mature individuals.
Liang and Zhang (2011) identified 18 sites with records of the species. Accounting for its small home range (inferred from radio-tracking data) and the species' avoidance of even well-vegetated plantations (Liang and Zhang 2011), it is assumed that the population is comprised of many novel subpopulations with little to no gene flow between them. Based on the values used to calculate the total population size, it is considered likely that no single population contains more than 51-250 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Recent data indicate that forest loss in this species' range has been slow. Including only patches >40 km2 in their analysis, Savini et al. (2021) estimated a c.3% contraction in suitable habitat between 2000 and 2018, while Global Forest Watch (2021) indicate a similar rate of c.4% forest loss over three generations (18 years; Bird et al. 2020) between 2002 and 2020. Hunting pressure however remains relatively high: of 169 local people interviewed (Wang et al. 2021), 77 knew of the species and 20 responded with exploitation-related knowledge (trade and price, hunting, consumption, use as medicine, and ornamental use). The additive impacts of these threats are inferred to be causing a slow ongoing decline, especially given its extirpation from formerly occupied sites (BirdLife International 2001).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
China (mainland) N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
China (mainland) Yinggeling
China (mainland) Ganshiling
China (mainland) Diaoluoshan
China (mainland) Limushan
China (mainland) Jiaxi
China (mainland) Houmiling
China (mainland) Jianfengling
China (mainland) Nanweiling
China (mainland) Bawangling
China (mainland) Baimaling-Huishan
China (mainland) Exianling and Changhuajiang

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 200 - 1300 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem conversion

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Polyplectron katsumatae. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/03/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 25/03/2023.