Guayaquil Woodpecker Campephilus gayaquilensis


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2022 Least Concern
2016 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2012 Near Threatened A2c+3c+4c
2008 Near Threatened A2c; A3c; A4c
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency high
Land-mass type continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 245,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size 25000-150000 mature individuals poor inferred 2020
Population trend decreasing poor suspected 2016-2033
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 10-19% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 10-19% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 10-19% - - -
Generation length 5.5 years - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Percentage of mature individuals in largest subpopulation 100% - - -

Population justification: The global population size has not been quantified. The species is described as 'fairly common' (Stotz et al. 1996), and it is regularly observed throughout its range (see records on eBird; eBird 2021). Based on the recorded population densities of congeners (Campephilus melanoleucus: 0.5 mature individuals/km2 and Campephilus rubricollis: 2-12 mature individuals/km2 [Santini et al. 2018]), the area of the species's mapped range (c. 125,000 km2), and precautionarily assuming that only around 10% of the range is occupied, the population is estimated to fall within the band 25,000-150,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species is feared to be in slow decline due to loss of forests within the range. Deforestation rates have however been low over the past three generations (16.5 years), amounting to 7% (Global Forest Watch 2021, using Hansen et al. [2013] data and methods disclosed therein). The species readily tolerates secondary and edge habitat (Winkler and Christie 2020). Nevertheless, it appears to require large patches of well-preserved forests nearby and reaches higher densities in forests than in secondary habitats (D. F. Cisneros-Heredia in litt. 2022). Moreover, it is locally hunted in western Ecuador (D. F. Cisneros-Heredia in litt. 2022). It is therefore precautionarily assumed that population declines exceed the rate of forest loss; they are here placed in the band 10-19% over three generations.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Colombia extant native yes
Ecuador extant native yes
Peru extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Ecuador Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco
Ecuador Bosque Protector Jatumpamba-Jorupe
Ecuador Bosque Protector Los Cedros
Ecuador Cañón del río Catamayo
Ecuador Cayapas-Santiago-Wimbí
Ecuador Cazaderos-Mangaurquillo
Ecuador Centro Científico Río Palenque
Ecuador Corredor Awacachi
Ecuador Reserva Biológica Tito Santos
Ecuador Mindo and western foothills of Volcan Pichincha
Ecuador Hacienda Camarones
Ecuador La Tagua
Ecuador Los Bancos - Milpe
Ecuador Bosque Protector Molleturo Mullopungo
Ecuador Maquipucuna-Río Guayllabamba
Ecuador Mataje-Cayapas-Santiago
Ecuador Parque Nacional Machalilla y alrededores
Ecuador Reserva Buenaventura
Ecuador Reserva Ecológica Arenillas
Ecuador Reserva Ecológica Cotacachi-Cayapas
Ecuador Mache Chindul Ecological Reserve and surrouding areas (Reserva Ecológica Mache-Chindul IBA)
Ecuador Reserva Natural Tumbesia-La Ceiba-Zapotillo
Ecuador Río Caoní
Ecuador Río Toachi-Chiriboga
Ecuador Tambo Negro
Ecuador Tonchigüe-Mompiche
Ecuador Verde-Ónzole-Cayapas-Canandé
Peru Alto Valle del Saña
Peru Coto de Caza El Angolo
Peru Bosques Secos de Salitral - Huarmaca - Olmos
Peru Laquipampa
Peru Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 800 m Occasional altitudinal limits (max) 1800 m

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Campephilus gayaquilensis. Downloaded from on 21/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 21/02/2024.