NT
Guanay Cormorant Leucocarbo bougainvilliorum



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Following Kennedy and Spencer (2014) the genus Phalacrocorax has been divided into six genera, with P. magellanicus, P. bougainvilliorum, P. atriceps, P. verrucosus, P. carunculatus, P. chalconotus, P. onslowi, P. campbelli, P. ranfurlyi and P. colensoi moved into Leucocarbo (HBW and BirdLife International 2018). Phalacrocorax bougainvilliorum (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously listed as P. bougainvillii.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2018. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 3. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/userfiles/file/Species/Taxonomy/HBW-BirdLife_Checklist_v3_Nov18.zip.
Kennedy, Martyn & Spencer, Hamish. 2014. Classification of the Cormorants of the World. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution. 79: 249-257.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2016 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2013 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2010 Near Threatened A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2008 Near Threatened A2c
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Land-mass type - continent
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 2,820,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 4,060,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 1996
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 20-29 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 20-29 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11 - - -

Population justification: Zavalaga and Paredes (1999) estimated the population at 3.7 million individuals, hence the population is best placed in the band 2,500,000-4,999,999 individuals.

Trend justification: The species has fluctuated in numbers in the past, but overall declines in the region of 20-29% are suspected in the past three generations (33 years).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Argentina N Possibly Extinct Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
Colombia V Extant Yes
Ecuador N Extant Yes
Panama V Extant Yes
Peru N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Argentina Punta Gutierrez - Bahía Camarones
Argentina Punta León
Chile Acantilados de Arica/ Guaneras de Camaraca
Chile Corriente de Humboldt Arica
Chile Cuevas de Anzota
Chile Desembocadura del Río Loa
Chile Guaneras de Cutipa
Chile Isla Mocha
Chile Isla Santa María
Chile Islote Concón
Chile Islote Pupuya
Chile Islotes Pajaros
Chile Puaucho
Chile Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt - Isla Choros, Damas y Punta de Choros
Chile Santuario de la Naturaleza Rocas de Constitución
Peru Isla Lobos de Afuera

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic major resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major resident
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Leucocarbo bougainvilliorum. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/12/2019.