NT
Guanay Cormorant Leucocarbo bougainvilliorum



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note
Following Kennedy and Spencer (2014) the genus Phalacrocorax has been divided into six genera, with P. magellanicus, P. bougainvilliorum, P. atriceps, P. verrucosus, P. carunculatus, P. chalconotus, P. onslowi, P. campbelli, P. ranfurlyi and P. colensoi moved into Leucocarbo (HBW and BirdLife International 2018). Phalacrocorax bougainvilliorum (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) was previously listed as P. bougainvillii.

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International. 2018. Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International digital checklist of the birds of the world. Version 3. Available at: http://datazone.birdlife.org/userfiles/file/Species/Taxonomy/HBW-BirdLife_Checklist_v3_Nov18.zip.
Kennedy, Martyn & Spencer, Hamish. 2014. Classification of the Cormorants of the World. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution. 79: 249-257.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2016 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2013 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Near Threatened A2cd+3cd+4cd
2010 Near Threatened A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2008 Near Threatened A2c
2006 Near Threatened
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency does not normally occur in forest
Land-mass type shelf island
continent
Average mass -
Range

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence (breeding/resident) 2,820,000 km2 medium
Extent of Occurrence (non-breeding) 4,060,000 km2 medium
Severely fragmented? no -
Population
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Population size unknown medium estimated 1996
Population trend decreasing poor suspected 1977-2010
Rate of change over the past 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 20-29% - - -
Rate of change over the future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 20-29% - - -
Rate of change over the past & future 10 years/3 generations (longer of the two periods) 20-29% - - -
Generation length 11 years - - -

Population justification: Zavalaga and Paredes (1999) estimated the population at 3.7 million individuals, hence the population is best placed in the band 2,500,000-4,999,999 individuals.

Trend justification: The species has fluctuated in numbers in the past, but overall declines in the region of 20-29% are suspected in the past three generations (33 years).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding visitor Non-breeding visitor Passage migrant
Argentina possibly extinct native yes
Chile extant native yes
Colombia extant vagrant yes
Ecuador extant native yes
Panama extant vagrant yes
Peru extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Chile Reserva Nacional Pingüino de Humboldt - Isla Choros, Damas y Punta de Choros
Peru Isla Lobos de Afuera
Chile Islote Concón
Chile Cuevas de Anzota
Chile Guaneras de Cutipa
Chile Islote Pupuya
Peru Isla Lobos de Tierra
Chile Santuario de la Naturaleza Rocas de Constitución
Chile Islotes Pajaros
Chile Punta Lengua de Vaca
Chile Monumento Natural Isla Cachagua
Chile Santuario de la Naturaleza Península de Hualpén
Chile Parque Nacional Pan de Azúcar
Chile Parque Tumbes Talcahuano
Chile Desembocadura del Río Bío-Bío
Chile Isla Pájaro Niño de Algarrobo

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Macroalgal/Kelp major resident
Marine Neritic Pelagic major resident
Marine Neritic Seagrass (Submerged) major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Loose Rock/pebble/gravel major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Rock and Rocky Reefs major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy major resident
Marine Neritic Subtidal Sandy-Mud major resident
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major resident
Marine Oceanic Mesopelagic (200-1000m) suitable resident
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Causing/Could cause fluctuations Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Reduced reproductive success
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - international non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - international non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2024) Species factsheet: Leucocarbo bougainvilliorum. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/guanay-cormorant-leucocarbo-bougainvilliorum on 28/02/2024.
Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2024) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from https://datazone.birdlife.org on 28/02/2024.