EN
Guadalcanal Moustached Kingfisher Actenoides excelsus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic note

Actenoides bougainvillei and A. excelsus (del Hoyo and Collar 2014) were previously lumped as A. bougainvillei following Sibley and Monroe (1990, 1993).

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- C2a(ii) C2a(i,ii)

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Endangered C2a(ii)
2014 Endangered C2a(ii)
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency High
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 3,200 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 1000-5760 poor inferred 2016
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.6 - - -

Population justification:

At the site above Betilonga, calls were heard from up to six locations from a camp at 1,500 m, but some calls might have been from the same individuals, and much forest at this altitude was assessed as unsuitable for this species (G. Dutson in litt. 1998). 15 km away, an area of approximately 1 square kilometer was subject to intensive observational survey in 2015.  Several groups of calling individuals were detected. Along a 2 km transect along a ridge line from 1200 to 1500 m, an average of 4-6 calling individuals was heard calling at dusk and dawn. This suggests that the species likely occurs across mid-montane Guadalcanal. This suggests a probable minimum of approximately 1,000 mature individuals based a conservative estimate that the approximate 1,200 km2 of available habitat (based upon a coarse GIS analysis of elevation zone area on Guadalcanal) is only 30% occupied (due to complex rugged topography, landslides, and likely influence of aspect on habitat suitability for this species) and that densities are on the order of four mature individuals per km2. A more likely estimate is an average of 4-6 pairs per km2 across 30-40% of potential habitat, which case the population would number about 2,000-5,760 mature individuals (C. Filardi in litt. 2016). Therefore, it is placed here in the range 1,000-5,760 mature individuals.

Trend justification: Given the lack of major recent, human disturbance across potential habitat for this species (direct anthropogenic habitat transformation has likely declined significantly in the wake of nearly all inland villages and garden sites being abandoned between the 1950s and early 1980s), it is likely that current population numbers, whatever they are, are near historic numbers for this species since human colonization of Guadalcanal thousands of years ago. Nonetheless, mining, logging in lower elevations and a changing climate all threaten portions of available habitat, leaving this species vulnerable to population declines should conservation measures fail (C. Filardi in litt. 2016). It is potentially impacted by introduced mammals such as cats which are relatively common even in undisturbed montane forest (G. Dutson in litt. 2016). Given the lack of information on this species, it is assessed precautionarily as potentially suffering an ongoing decline.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Solomon Islands N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane major resident
Altitude 900 - 1600 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 3
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Shifting agriculture Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Energy production & mining Mining & quarrying Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Felis catus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Named species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Actenoides excelsus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 22/05/2019.