Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 7436 g
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 20,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 44,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 500000-999999 poor estimated 2012
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 17.8 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 32,400-34,400 pairs, which equates to 64,800-68,800 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). Approximately 10% of the global range for this species falls within Europe, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 648,000-688,000 mature individuals. It is placed in the band 500,000-999,999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is increasing in its European range (BirdLife International 2015) and re-introductions have taken place in France. The central Asian population is suspected to be stable. Populations in North Africa and Turkey are suspected to be in decline owing to persecution, shooting, poisoning and loss of suitable food owing to changing farming practices. However, the overall population trend is suspected to be increasing.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bangladesh V Extant
Belarus V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mongolia N Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Niger V Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestinian Authority Territories N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extinct Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia V Extant
Slovenia N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Togo V Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara V Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Albania Thethi
Armenia Dsegh
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Azerbaijan Gekchai Bozdag mountains
Azerbaijan Zuvand upland
Bulgaria Madzharovo
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Croatia Kvarner Islands
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Limnatis Valley
France Eth Turoun des Aureys
France Gorges du Tarn et de la Jonte
France Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles
France Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin.
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Pènes du Moulle de Jaut
France Pic de l'Estibet et Mondragon
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas), Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Mount Giouchtas, Crete
Greece Mount Idi, Crete
Greece Mount Peristeri
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Prasson gorge, Crete
Greece Valtou mountains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bamou National Park
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Oshtrankuh Protected Area
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Israel Judean desert
Israel Lake Kinneret and Kinerot
Italy Coast between Bosa and Alghero
Jordan Dana
Jordan Petra
Jordan Wadi Araba
Jordan Wadi Mujib
Jordan Wadi Yarmuk
Palestinian Authority Territories Ein Al-Fashkha
Palestinian Authority Territories Ein Al-Oja
Palestinian Authority Territories Jerusalem wilderness
Palestinian Authority Territories Wadi Al-Qelt
Portugal Côa valley
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal
Portugal Upper River Douro and Águeda valleys
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Russia (European) Akhmet-Skala ridge
Russia (European) Lower Urushten river
Russia (European) Ravine of Cherek-Balkarski river
Russia (European) Ravine of Gundelen-Tyzyl river
Russia (European) Valley of Urup river
Saudi Arabia Hima al-Fiqrah
Saudi Arabia Jabal Aja and Northern Ha'il
Saudi Arabia Jabal al-Lawz
Saudi Arabia Taif escarpment
Saudi Arabia Wadi Turabah and Jabal Ibrahim
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Slovenia Breginjski Stol
Slovenia Julijci
Slovenia Karst
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Spain Alcarama mountain and Alhama river
Spain Alto Lozoya-La Pedriza
Spain Areta, Archuba and Zariquieta mountain ranges
Spain Arlanza Valley-Peñas de Cervera
Spain Arnedillo-Isasa crag
Spain Bajo Alcanadre-Serreta de Tramaced
Spain Belagua-Ansó-Hecho
Spain Boumort mountains
Spain Bujeo, Ojén, del Niño and Blanquilla mountain ranges
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range
Spain Cazorla and Segura mountain ranges
Spain Ceuta
Spain Coria mountain ranges
Spain Cuenca mountain ranges
Spain Dos Ríos and Orba mountain ranges
Spain Duratón canyon
Spain Echauri crags
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain Gorges of Iregua, Leza and Jubera
Spain Gorramendi mountain and Itxusi crags
Spain Guara mountain range
Spain Humada-Peña Amaya
Spain Izaga crag
Spain La Losa-Orduña (Salvada mountain range)
Spain Las Contiendas mountain range
Spain Las Villuercas mountain range
Spain Leyre, Illón and San Miguel mountain ranges
Spain Líjar mountain range-Zaframagon crag
Spain Moncayo mountain range
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Montaña Oriental Costera
Spain Montejo de la Vega-Riaza canyon
Spain Morella pass
Spain Pass of Beceite-Turmell mountain
Spain Picos de Europa mountain range
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros
Spain Río Huebra-Arribes del Duero
Spain River Guadalope
Spain River Lobos canyon
Spain River Martín canyons and Arcos mountain range
Spain River Mesa canyons
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Sant Gervás mountains
Spain Santo Domingo-Riglos-Gratal
Spain Sierra Morena de Córdoba
Spain Sierra Pelada mountain range
Spain Sierras de Lokiz, Urbasa y Andía
Spain Sobrón canyon
Spain Sotoscueva - Ojo Guareña
Spain Tarifa
Spain Tiermes-Caracena
Spain Ubrique and Grazalema mountain ranges
Spain Upper Ebro and Rudrón canyons
Spain Upper sections of the rivers Tajo and Tajuña
Spain Valdegovía-Arcena mountain range
Spain West Andévalo
Syria Jabal Abdul Aziz
Syria Jabal Slenfeh
Syria Wadi al-Qarn - Burqush
Syria Yarmuk valley
Turkey Bolkar Mountains
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains
Turkey İğdır Plain
Turkey Kazankaya Valley
Turkey Küpeli Mountain
Turkey Tanin Tanin Mountains
Ukraine Crimean Nature Reserve
Yemen Haraz mountains
Yemen Jabal al-Nabi Shu'ayb
Yemen Jabal Sumarah
Yemen Mahwit
Yemen Wadi al-Birayn

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Temperate suitable breeding
Grassland Temperate suitable non-breeding
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Agro-industry grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Type Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Gyps fulvus. Downloaded from on 28/01/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/01/2020.