Griffon Vulture Gyps fulvus


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2013 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass 7436 g

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 20,400,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 44,500,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 80000-900000 poor suspected 2021
Population trend Increasing suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.03 - - -

Population justification: The European population is estimated at 34,800-44,700 pairs, which equates to 69,600-89,400 mature individuals (BirdLife International in prep.). Approximately 10% of the global range for this species falls within Europe, so a very preliminary estimate of the global population size is 696,000-894,000 mature individuals. However, Botha et al. (2017) estimate the population to be much smaller than this, at 80,000-120,000 individuals. It is placed in the band 80,000-900,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The population is increasing in its European range (BirdLife International in prep.) and re-introductions have taken place in France, Italy and the Balkans. The central Asian population is suspected to be stable. Populations in North Africa and Turkey are suspected to be in decline owing to persecution, shooting, poisoning and loss of suitable food owing to changing farming practices. There has also been a significant decline recorded in northern Israel, predominantly due to poisoning (Choresh et al. 2019). However, the overall population trend is suspected to be increasing, largely thanks to conservation efforts in Europe.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Bangladesh V Extant
Belarus V Extant
Belgium V Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant
Denmark V Extant
Djibouti V Extant
Egypt N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia V Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Finland V Extant
France N Extant Yes Yes
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany V Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary V Extant
India N Extant Yes
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland V Extant
Israel N Extant Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Jordan N Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya V Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia V Extant
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya V Extant
Mali N Extant
Malta V Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mongolia N Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco N Extant
Nepal N Extant Yes
Netherlands V Extant
Niger V Extant
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant Yes
Palestine N Extant Yes
Poland V Extant
Portugal N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extinct Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant
Russia (European) N Extant Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Slovakia V Extant
Slovenia N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes Yes
Sudan N Extant Yes
Switzerland V Extant
Syria N Extant Yes
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Togo V Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Ukraine N Extant Yes
United Arab Emirates V Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Western Sahara V Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cyprus Pafos Forest
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Cyprus Xeros Valley and Hanoutaris Cliffs
Cyprus Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Pentadaktylos Mountains
North Macedonia Demir Kapija Gorge
North Macedonia River Crna gorge
North Macedonia River Bregalnica
North Macedonia Babuna gorge, Topolka gorge, and Crn Kamen
North Macedonia River Radika catchment
North Macedonia Shar Planina Mountain
Serbia Deliblatska pescara
Azerbaijan Turianchai
Georgia Ritsa
Azerbaijan Alty Agach area
Azerbaijan Mount Babadag
Azerbaijan Mount Bazar-Duzu
Azerbaijan Gekchai Bozdag mountains
Azerbaijan Mount Dalidag
Azerbaijan Mount Giamysh
Azerbaijan Mount Ilandag
Azerbaijan Korchai area
Azerbaijan Lachin area
Azerbaijan Mugan steppe
Azerbaijan Negram mountains
Azerbaijan Ordubad area
Azerbaijan Shahbuz area
Azerbaijan Mount Shahdag
Azerbaijan Zuvand upland
Portugal Upper River Tejo
Portugal Upper River Douro and Águeda valleys
Portugal South-west coast of Portugal
Portugal Côa valley
Bulgaria Studen Kladenets
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Central Balkan
Turkey Akdağ - Çivril
Turkey Kızılcahamam Forests
Turkey İlgaz Mountains
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains [incl Karcal Mountains]
Turkey Aladağlar
Palestine Wadi Al-Qelt
Palestine Ein Al-Oja
Palestine Ein Al-Fashkha
Greece Mountains of Naxos
Greece Thrypti and Orno mountains, Crete
Greece Mount Dikti, Crete
Greece Mount Asterousia (Kofinas), Crete
Greece Mount Idi, Crete
Greece Prasson gorge, Crete
Greece Mount Kedros and Kourtaliotiko gorge, Crete
Greece Lefka Ori mountains, Crete
Greece Mount Parnassos
Greece Mount Gkiona
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Tymfi (Gkamila) and Smolikas mountains
Greece Mount Beles (Kerkini)
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Mount Koutroulis, Mount Agios Dikaios and Modia plateau, Crete
Greece Mount Giouchtas, Crete
Greece Mount Oiti
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Mount Peristeri
Greece Mount Kryoneritis, Crete
Greece Mount Zakrou, Crete
Greece Mount Vardousia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Kythira island
Greece Mount Vourinos
Greece Athamanika mountains (Tzoumerka)
Greece Kalamaki gorge and Zarkou mountains
Greece Mount Othrys
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Filiouri valley and eastern Rodopi mountains
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Mountains of central Evvoia
Greece Echinades, Kalamos and Atokos islands
Greece Agrafa mountains
Greece Mount Chelmos (Aroania)
Greece Mount Mavrovouni, Larisa
Greece Paramythia mountains
Greece Tsamanta, Filiata, Farmakovouni and Megali Rachi mountains
Greece Mount Olympos
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Akarnanika mountains
Greece Tzena and Pinovo mountains
Greece Acheloos valley
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Mount Taygetos
Greece Amorgos island
Greece Mount Voras (Kaïmaktsalan)
Greece Mount Krousia (Mavrovouni and Dysoro)
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Mount Pangaio
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Mount Menoikio
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Barbas and Klokos mountains and Selinountas gorge
Greece Mount Ymittos
Greece Mount Grammos
Greece Mikres Kyklades island complex
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Vouraïkos gorge and Kalavryta
Russia (European) Caucasus Biosphere Reserve
Russia (European) Lower Urushten river
Russia (European) Akhmet-Skala ridge
Russia (European) Valley of Urup river
Russia (European) Kurdzhips river valley
Russia (European) Uttinskaya area
Spain Antequera mountain range-El Chorro
Spain Líjar mountain range-Zaframagon crag
Spain Ubrique and Grazalema mountain ranges
Spain Cabras, Aljibe and Montecoche mountain range
Spain Bujeo, Ojén, del Niño and Blanquilla mountain ranges
Spain De la Plata mountain range
Spain La Janda
Spain Mountain ranges of Cordoba
Spain Cazorla and Segura mountain ranges
Spain Sierra Morena de Córdoba
Spain Sierra Morena de Sevilla
Spain Turia canyon and Los Serranos
Spain Morella pass
Spain Pass of Beceite-Turmell mountain
Spain River Guadalope
Spain River Martín canyons and Arcos mountain range
Spain River Mesa canyons
Spain River Jalón canyon
Spain Moncayo mountain range
Spain Montsech and Montgai mountains
Spain Boumort mountains
Spain Sant Gervás mountains
Spain Guara mountain range
Spain Santo Domingo-Riglos-Gratal
Spain San Juan de la Peña-Oroel crag
Spain Leyre, Illón and San Miguel mountain ranges
Spain Gorramendi mountain and Itxusi crags
Spain Dos Ríos and Orba mountain ranges
Spain Areta, Archuba and Zariquieta mountain ranges
Spain Echauri crags
Spain Izaga crag
Spain Alcarama mountain and Alhama river
Spain Arnedillo-Isasa crag
Spain Gorges of Iregua, Leza and Jubera
Spain Central Badajoz mountain ranges
Spain Cedillo reservoir
Spain Puerto Peña reservoir-Valdecaballeros
Spain Cijara reservoir
Spain Las Villuercas mountain range
Spain Monfragüe
Spain Coria mountain ranges
Spain Cuenca mountain ranges
Spain Upper sections of the rivers Tajo and Tajuña
Spain Ayllón mountain range
Spain Alto Lozoya-La Pedriza
Spain Arlanza Valley-Peñas de Cervera
Spain River Lobos canyon
Spain Tiermes-Caracena
Spain Montejo de la Vega-Riaza canyon
Spain Duratón canyon
Spain Gredos and Candelario mountain ranges
Spain Peña de Francia
Spain Río Huebra-Arribes del Duero
Spain Arribes del Duero-Fermoselle
Spain Obarenes mountains
Spain Sobrón canyon
Spain La Losa-Orduña (Salvada mountain range)
Spain Oña and Tesla mountain ranges
Spain Upper Ebro and Rudrón canyons
Spain Humada-Peña Amaya
Spain Fuentes Carrionas
Spain Picos de Europa mountain range
Spain Altos de Barahona high moor
Spain River Moros
Spain Valdegovía-Arcena mountain range
Spain Alt Pallars
Spain Cadí mountains
Spain Lerida steppes
Spain Izki mountains
Spain El Escorial-San Martín de Valdeiglesias
Spain El Pardo-Viñuelas
Spain Riaño
Spain Tierra de Campiñas steppes
Spain Babia-Somiedo
Spain Central ranges of the Cantabric mountains
Spain Aldeaquemada-Dañador
Spain Mountain ranges of Ronda, Bermeja and Crestellina
Spain Tarifa
Spain Madrona and Andújar mountain ranges
Spain Sierra Pelada mountain range
Spain West Andévalo
Spain Ceuta
Spain Turbón-Espés-Sis
Spain Bajo Alcanadre-Serreta de Tramaced
Spain Los Monegros (South)
Spain Lower course of the river Huerva
Spain Parameras del Río Jiloca
Spain San Pedro mountain range
Spain Puerto de Mejoral-Almorchón-Cabeza del Buey
Spain Lower course of the river Matarraña-Ribarroja
Spain Bardenas Reales
Spain Belagua-Ansó-Hecho
Spain Northern slope of Guadarrama mountain range
Spain Montes Universales-Albarracín mountain range
Spain Plasencia and San Bernabé mountain range
Spain Sierra de Aracena
Spain Las Contiendas mountain range
Ukraine Bilogir'ya
France Haute Soule : Forêt des Arbailles
France Haute Soule : Forêt d'Irraty, Organbidexka et Pic des Escaliers
France Hautes Vallées d'Aspe et d'Ossau
France Gorges de la Vis et cirque de Navacelles
France Vallée de Melles, cols d'Aoueran et d'Artisagou et Mont Vallier
France Zones rupestres du Tarasconnais et massif d'Aston
France Gorges du Tarn et de la Jonte
France Eth Turoun des Aureys
France Pènes du Moulle de Jaut
France Haute Soule : massif de la Pierre-St-Martin.
France Pic de l'Estibet et Mondragon
Italy Coast between Bosa and Alghero
Italy Altopiano di Campeda
Italy Tarvisio Forest
Italy Ernici and Simbruini mountains
Italy Sirente, Velino and Duchessa mountains
Italy Altopiano di Abbasanta
Italy Middle valley of Tagliamento river
Italy Giulie Pre-Alps
Albania Thethi
Gibraltar (to UK) Rock of Gibraltar
Georgia Eastern Caucasus
Georgia Iori Region
Georgia Meskheti
Serbia Valjevske mountains
Serbia Uvac-Milesevka
Serbia Sara mountain
Serbia Stara mountains
Serbia Sicevo gorge
Armenia Khosrov Reserve
Croatia Mt Dinara
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Mount Velebit
Croatia Prvic island
Croatia Special Ornithological Reserves on Cres island
Croatia Special Ornithological Reserve on Krk island
Ukraine Crimean Nature Reserve
Turkey İğdır Plain
Turkey Dicle Valley
Turkey Bolkar Mountains
United Arab Emirates Jebel Hafeet
Afghanistan Pech and Waygal valleys
Israel Judean desert
Israel Cliffs of Zin and the Negev highlands
Syria Golan Heights
Israel Lake Kinneret and Kinerot
Iraq Amedi and Sulav
Iraq Bakhma, Dukan and Darbandikhan dams
Iran, Islamic Republic of Alborz-e Markazi Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Golestan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arasbaran Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Oshtrankuh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bamou National Park
Jordan Wadi Mujib
Jordan Dana
Jordan Petra
Jordan Wadi Araba
Jordan Wadi Yarmuk
Lebanon Horsh Ehden Nature Reserve
Palestine Jerusalem wilderness
Saudi Arabia Hima al-Fiqrah
Saudi Arabia Taif escarpment
Saudi Arabia Wadi Turabah and Jabal Ibrahim
Saudi Arabia Jabal al-Lawz
Saudi Arabia Jabal Aja and Northern Ha'il
Syria Jabal Slenfeh
Syria Tadmur desert and mountains
Syria Wadi al-Qarn - Burqush
Syria Yarmuk valley
Syria Jabal Abdul Aziz
Yemen Haraz mountains
Yemen Jabal Sumarah
Yemen Wadi al-Birayn
Yemen Mahwit
Yemen Jabal al-Nabi Shu'ayb
Russia (European) Vicinity of Dakhovka
Russia (European) Sources of Kuna and Shisha rivers
Russia (European) Kebyaktepe ridge
Russia (European) Samurski ridge
Russia (European) Orota depression
Russia (European) Valley of Khasaut river, mountains B.Bermamyt and M.Bermamyt
Russia (European) Skalisti ridge between Urup and Maly Zelenchuk rivers
Russia (European) Yangiyurtovski reserve and Bakas fen
Russia (European) Barchan Sarykum and Narat-Tyube
Russia (European) Valley of Khodz' river
Russia (European) Talginskaya Valley
Russia (European) Bolchoi Tkhach mountain
Russia (European) Outskirts of Kislovodsk
Russia (Central Asian) Korgonskaya
Bulgaria Emine
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Sinite Kamani-Grebenets
Bulgaria Slavyanka Mountain
Bulgaria Kamchiyska Mountain
Portugal Portas de Ródão e Vale Mourão
Portugal Serra de Penha Garcia e Campina de Toulões
Armenia Dsegh
France Rive Gauche de la Vallée d'Aspe et Pic d'Anie
France Massif du Canigou-Carança
France Gorges de la Dourbie et causses avoisinants
France Préalpes de Grasse
France Hautes Corbières
France Vallée de la Nive des Aldudes-Col de Lindux
France Hauts Plateaux du Vercors et Forêt des Coulmes
Bulgaria Belite Skali
Iran, Islamic Republic of Akh Gol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kiamaki Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lar River Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Parvar Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khosh-Yeilagh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Touran
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i Jowin and Rud-i Kalshur
Iran, Islamic Republic of Sarani
Iran, Islamic Republic of Tandoureh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Divandareh/Zarrineh Owbatu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Zaribar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Western Zagros north of Nowsud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-i Gaz
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hashelan marsh and Doh Tappeh plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Telesm plain
Iran, Islamic Republic of Mooteh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gandoman marsh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kalmand Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kuh-i Dena, and Yasuj and Sisakht area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dorudsan dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khabr-va-Rouchoon Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Kuh-i Bazman
Iran, Islamic Republic of Geno
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Gaz and Rud-i-Hara deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Jagin and Rud-i-Gabrik deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Chahbahar Bay and Khor Konarak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Jordan Hisma Basin - Rum
Lebanon Shouf Cedars Nature Reserve
Saudi Arabia At-Tubayq
Saudi Arabia Hawtat Bani Tamim
Saudi Arabia Mahazat as-Sayd
Saudi Arabia Shallal ad-Dahna
Saudi Arabia Al-Habrow al-Arabi
Saudi Arabia Raydah escarpment
Saudi Arabia Jabal Fayfa
Saudi Arabia Wadi Jawwah
Syria Buhayrat al-Khatuniyah
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Syria Buhayrat al-Assad
Syria Umm al-Tuyyur
Syria Euphrates valley
Syria Wadi al-Azib
Syria Jabal al-Bishri
Syria Jabal al-Bilas
Syria Abu Zad
Yemen Kawkaban - Shibam
Yemen Al-Kadan area
Yemen Jabal Bura
Yemen High mountains of Ibb
Yemen Ta'izz wadis
Yemen Mafraq al-Mukha
Bulgaria Madzharovo
Kazakhstan Upper Charyn
Ukraine Baydaro-Aipetrynska yajla
Ukraine Ivanivka vallage
Russia (European) Right coast of Malaya Laba River
Russia (European) Kosobo-Kelebski reserve
Russia (European) Buinakskaya depression
Russia (European) Baksanskoye ravine
Russia (European) Verkhnechegemskaya depression
Russia (European) Chegemskoye ravine
Russia (European) Khulamskoye ravine
Russia (European) Sources of Kuma river
Russia (European) Sources of the Podkumok river
Russia (European) Marinskaya cuesta of Skalisti ridge
Russia (European) Digoriya rocks
Russia (European) Malka river ravine
Russia (European) Ravine of Gundelen-Tyzyl river
Italy Mount Beigua
Russia (European) Valley of Bashlychai river
Russia (European) Gunibskoye plateau
Russia (European) Valley of Gizel'don river
Russia (European) Ravine of Cherek-Balkarski river
Kazakhstan Kenshektau Mountains
Turkey Tanin Tanin Mountains
Turkey Küpeli Mountain
Turkey Southern Euphrates Valley and Birecik Plains
Slovenia Vipavski rob
Slovenia Julijci
Turkey Kazankaya Valley
Turkey Bolkar mountain
Turkey Göksu Valley
Turkey Köprüçay Valley
Croatia Kvarner Islands
Italy Cape Caccia and Conte port
Turkey Eastern Black Sea Mountains
Cyprus Akrotiri Peninsula - Episkopi Cliffs
Cyprus Diarizos Valley
Cyprus Troodos Forest
Cyprus Vouni Panagias
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Gorge Tash-Rabat
Kyrgyzstan Western Alai, Kok-Suu river
Kazakhstan Chokpak Pass
Slovenia Banjšice plateau
Slovenia Breginjski Stol
Slovenia Karst
Slovenia Snežnik plateau and Pivka valley
Spain Sotoscueva - Ojo Guareña
Spain Montaña Oriental Costera
Spain Sierras de Lokiz, Urbasa y Andía
Cyprus Limnatis Valley
Cyprus Cha Potami River
Armenia Haghartsin
Egypt Suez
Egypt Ain Sukhna
Syria Jabal al-Shuah
Syria Mount Hermon
Morocco Jbel Moussa
Greece Antikythira island and surrounding islets
Kazakhstan Donyz-Tau cliff faces
Kazakhstan Altyn-Emel National Park
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Turkmenistan Garashor
Serbia Ozren-Jadovnik
Serbia Mucanj
Serbia Uvac

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Grassland Temperate suitable resident
Rocky areas (eg. inland cliffs, mountain peaks) major breeding
Shrubland Mediterranean-type Shrubby Vegetation suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 3000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Unintentional effects (species is not the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality
Energy production & mining Renewable energy Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Species mortality
Human intrusions & disturbance Recreational activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Species disturbance
Natural system modifications Other ecosystem modifications Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Indirect ecosystem effects
Other options Other threat Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Species mortality
Transportation & service corridors Utility & service lines Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Species mortality

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2022) Species factsheet: Gyps fulvus. Downloaded from on 17/08/2022. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2022) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 17/08/2022.