Justification of Red List Category
This species qualifies as Vulnerable because it has a small population, restricted to a cluster of montane areas. There are currently no major threats to its habitat, so the population is suspected to be stable, but dry season fires may pose a risk in the near future.
The population is estimated to number 1,000-2,499 individuals based on an assessment of known records, descriptions of abundance and range size. This is consistent with recorded population density estimates for congeners or close relatives with a similar body size, and the fact that only a proportion of the estimated Extent of Occurrence is likely to be occupied. This estimate is equivalent to 667-1,666 mature individuals, rounded here to 600-1,700 mature individuals.
The population is suspected to be stable, as there is no evidence of declines and no obvious threats to the species's habitat, although forest fires are a potential threat.
Tijuca condita was thought to be restricted to the Serra dos Órgãos and the Serra do Tinguá in the vicinity of Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil, where it occurs in naturally fragmented habitat, but recent surveys have doubled the known range and found the species in the Serra das Araras and at Nova Caledônia (Alves et al. 2008). The area is difficult to survey, owing to the inaccessibility of suitable habitat, but only small numbers of birds have ever been recorded and it appears to occur at very low densities (Alves et al. 2008). The population is estimated to be between 1,000 and 2,499 individuals.
It occurs in patches of extremely humid, elfin cloud-forest, rich in bromeliads and with a rather even canopy 5-10 m high, both on exposed ridges and sheltered slopes above the main treeline. It is usually found at 1,650-2,010 m, but there is one record from Serra do Tinguá at 1,370 m (Alves et al. 2008, S. Pimm, M. A. Alvez and C. Jenkins in litt. 2012). It appears to be very localised within its narrow elevational range, and the extent of suitable habitat may be as little as 200 km2 (Alves et al. 2008, S. Pimm, M. A. Alvez and C. Jenkins in litt. 2012). A female caught in mid-November had a well developed brood-patch, suggesting breeding at that time. Little is known about its diet, but one bird has been seen eating small red berries. Basic ecological requirements remain incompletely known (Kirwan and Green 2011, Snow and Sharpe 2015).
Although there are no obvious immediate threats to its habitat at known sites, both disturbance and fires caused by hikers have been considered potential threats. The newly discovered population at Nova Caledônia is more accessible and susceptible to disturbance by hikers and other tourists, and logging is a potential concern here, although not at present, with eucalyptus plantations encroaching on habitat below the species's elevation range (A. Foster in litt. 2014). In September 1993, a major forest fire was noted in or adjacent to Serra dos Órgãos National Park, indicating that this threat could be particularly significant. Similarly, a major forest fire burned at least 25% of suitable habitat at Nova Caledônia in 2011 (J. King in litt. 2012). Projected climate change could cause shifts in the distribution and extent of its habitat and thus its elevation range (S. Pimm in litt. 2013), with some anecdotal observations suggesting that the species is moving upslope at Nova Caledônia (A. Foster in litt. 2013).
Conservation Actions Underway
It is considered Vulnerable at the national level in Brazil (Silveira and Straube 2008, MMA 2014). Four of the populations occur within protected areas: (Serra dos Órgãos National Park, Tinguá Biological Reserve, Araras Biological Reserve and Três Picos State Park [Kirwan and Green 2011]). The population at Nova Caledônia is not in an effective protected area. Conservation Actions Proposed
Survey to determine its status within the protected areas. Quantify potential threats. Protect the species under Brazilian law.
24 cm. Greenish cotinga. Olive-green upperparts with yellower rump. Dull grey forehead, lores, below eye, chin and upper throat, with grizzled effect in chin and throat. Bright olive-yellow breast, becoming yellower on belly. Olive-brown wings with silver-grey outer webs forming wing panel. Yellowish-olive wing-coverts. Dark olive-brown tail with grey outer webs. Slim grey bill. Females duller with less grey on head. Similar spp. Female Black-and-gold Cotinga T. atra is larger and stockier, more uniformly olive and occurs at lower altitudes. Voice Song is explosive, dysillabic zuuee wheé of c.1.25 seconds. Less plaintive and shorter than T. atra.
Text account compilers
Clay, R., Pople, R., Sharpe, C J, Symes, A., Taylor, J. & Williams, R.
Alves, M., Foster, A., Jenkins, C., King, J. & Pimm, S.
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Lipaugus conditus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 12/12/2019.