EN
Grey Parrot Psittacus erithacus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered A2bcd+3bcd+4bcd
2016 Endangered A2bcd+3bcd
2013 Vulnerable A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd
2012 Vulnerable A2abcd+3bcd+4abcd
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,460,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals medium estimated 2006
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 15.5 - - -

Population justification: Using density estimates for the now-split P. timneh (4.9-6.0 birds/km2; Fotso 1998a, McGowan 2001), the West African population of P. erithacus is estimated at 40,000-100,000 birds, although central African populations of this species are much larger. Using a global land cover classification, a digitised map of the species's range from Benson et al. (1988), and estimates of density 0.15-0.45 birds/km2 in semi-deciduous forest (including deciduous forest) and 0.3-6.0 birds/km2 in evergreen forest (including swamp forest and mangrove), supplemented by post-1995 published national estimates where available, an initial coarse assessment of the global population of P. erithacus is 0.56-12.7 million individuals.

Trend justification: Population declines have been noted in Burundi, Cameroon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Liberia, Nigeria, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Sierra Leone, Togo, Uganda and parts of Congo and the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In all of these declines, trapping for the wild bird trade has been implicated, with habitat loss also having significant impacts throughout West and East Africa. Data suggested that c.21 % of the wild population is being harvested annually, and in addition forest loss during 1990-2000 was estimated to be particularly high in Côte d'Ivoire (31%) and Nigeria (26%). The total number birds extracted from the wild during the period 1982 to 2014 may have been c.1.3 million (UNEP-WCMC 2016), with perhaps some 100,000 birds per year being captured in Cameroon during the late 1990s and early 2000s (F. Dowsett-Lemaire in litt. 2012). The rate of decline is hard to quantify, but given the massive level of capture for trade and the high levels of forest loss in parts of the range the decline is likely to be in the range of 50-79% in three generations (47 years).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola N Extant Yes
Benin I Extant Yes
Burundi N Extant Yes
Cameroon N Extant Yes
Central African Republic N Extant Yes
Congo N Extant Yes
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant Yes
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant Yes
Equatorial Guinea N Extant Yes
Gabon N Extant Yes
Ghana N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant Yes
Nigeria N Extant Yes
Rwanda N Extant Yes
São Tomé e Príncipe N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant Yes
Togo I Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Angola Cuango
Angola Luachimo River (Chitato)
Angola Maiombe
Burundi Kibira National Park
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Luki Forest Reserve
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Ngiri
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Salonga National Park
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Lomako - Yekokora
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Mount Hoyo Reserve
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Okapi Faunal Reserve
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Virunga National Park
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Maiko National Park
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Forests west of Lake Edward
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Kahuzi-Biega National Park
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the Itombwe Mountains
Central African Republic Bangui
Central African Republic Ngotto
Central African Republic Dzanga-Ndoki National Park
Congo Nouabalé-Ndoki National Park complex
Congo Odzala National Park complex
Congo Léfini Faunal Reserve
Congo Dimonika Biosphere Reserve
Congo Lower Kouilou basin
Congo Conkouati National Park
Côte d'Ivoire Bossematie Forest Reserve
Cameroon Mbam Djerem National Park
Cameroon Banyang Mbo Wildlife Sanctuary
Cameroon Santchou Faunal Reserve
Cameroon Korup National Park
Cameroon Bakossi mountains
Cameroon Mont Nlonako
Cameroon Mount Rata and Rumpi Hills Forest Reserve
Cameroon Mount Kupe
Cameroon Yabassi
Cameroon Mount Cameroon and Mokoko-Onge
Cameroon Mbam Minkom - Kala
Cameroon Dja Faunal Reserve
Cameroon Boumba - Bek
Cameroon Campo Ma'an complex
Cameroon Nki
Cameroon Lobéké National Park
Gabon Gamba Protected Areas Complex
Gabon Lopé Faunal Reserve
Gabon Ipassa Strict Nature Reserve
Gabon Minkébé Forest Reserve
Gabon Akanda
Gabon Ogooué delta and Mandji island
Ghana Ankasa Resource Reserve - Nini-Sushien National Park
Ghana Atewa Range Forest Reserve
Ghana Bia National Park and Resource Reserve
Ghana Boin Tano Forest Reserve
Ghana Boin River Forest Reserve
Ghana Bosomtwe Range Forest Reserve
Ghana Bura River Forest Reserve
Ghana Cape Three Points Forest Reserve
Ghana Dadieso Forest Reserve
Ghana Draw River Forest Reserve
Ghana Ebi River Shelterbelt Forest Reserve
Ghana Fure River Forest Reserve
Ghana Jema-Asemkrom Forest Reserve
Ghana Kakum National Park - Assin Attandaso Resource Reserve
Ghana Mamiri Forest Reserve
Ghana Pra-Sushien Forest Reserve
Ghana Subri River Forest Reserve
Ghana Tano-Anwia Forest Reserve
Ghana Tano-Ehuro Forest Reserve
Ghana Tano-Nimiri Forest Reserve
Ghana Tano-Offin Forest Reserve
Ghana Yoyo River Forest Reserve
Guinea Kabitaï
Guinea Massif du Ziama
Guinea Diécké
Equatorial Guinea Monte Alen National Park
Kenya Kakamega forest
Nigeria Afi River Forest Reserve
Nigeria Okomu National Park
Nigeria Cross River National Park (Oban Division)
Nigeria Omo Forest Reserve
Nigeria Cross River National Park (Okwangwo Division) and Mbe Mountains
Nigeria Upper Orashi forests
Nigeria Biseni forests
Nigeria Akassa forests
Nigeria Sunvit Farm
Rwanda Nyungwe National Park
Togo Fazao-Malfakassa National Park
Tanzania Minziro Forest Reserve
Uganda Bwindi Impenetrable National Park
Uganda Kibale National Park
Uganda Queen Elizabeth National Park and Lake George
Uganda Semliki National Park
Uganda Mabira Forest Reserve
Uganda Sango Bay area
Uganda Budongo Forest Reserve
Uganda Nabajjuzi Wetland
Uganda Kasyoha-Kitomi Forest Reserve
Congo Lake Télé Community Reserve
Congo Ntokou Pikounda Reserve
Congo Ogooué Leketi National Park
Uganda Bugoma Central Forest Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Plantations suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Rural Gardens suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Urban Areas suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Swamp major resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2200 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2020) Species factsheet: Psittacus erithacus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/05/2020. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2020) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 27/05/2020.