LC
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: #http://www.aerc.eu/DOCS/Bird_taxa_of _the_WP15.xls#.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2019 Least Concern
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Low
Land mass type Average mass 1443 g
Distribution

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 136,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 141,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 500000-2500000 poor estimated 2009
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation - - -
Generation length (yrs) 10.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated to number c.790,000-3,700,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). This roughly equates to 500,000-2,500,000 mature individuals. The European population is estimated at 223,000-391,000 pairs, which equates to 447,000-782,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015). National population estimates include 100,000-1 million breeding pairs and > 10,000 individuals on migration in China; 100-10,000 breeding pairs and 1,000-10,000 wintering individuals in Korea; 100,000-1 million breeding pairs and > 10,000 wintering individuals in Japan; and 100,000-1 million breeding pairs and > 10,000 individuals on migration in Russia (Brazil 2009).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are stable, increasing or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). A moderate increase between 1980 and 2013 has been estimated for the European population (EBCC 2015). However the European breeding population is thought to have undergone a short-term decline between 2000 and 2012 (BirdLife International 2015).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan N Extant Yes Yes
Albania N Extant Yes
Algeria N Extant
Angola N Extant
Antigua and Barbuda N Extant
Armenia N Extant Yes
Australia U Extant
Austria N Extant Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes Yes
Bahrain N Extant Yes Yes
Bangladesh N Extant
Barbados N Extant
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Benin N Extant
Bhutan N Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant Yes
Botswana N Extant
Brazil N Extant
Brunei N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Burkina Faso N Extant
Burundi N Extant
Cambodia N Extant
Cameroon N Extant
Cape Verde N Extant
Central African Republic N Extant
Chad N Extant
China (mainland) N Extant
Comoros N Extant
Congo N Extant
Congo, The Democratic Republic of the N Extant
Côte d'Ivoire N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cyprus N Extant Yes Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Djibouti N Extant
Dominica N Extant
Egypt N Extant
Equatorial Guinea N Extant
Eritrea N Extant
Estonia N Extant Yes
Eswatini N Extant
Ethiopia N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant Yes
Finland N Extant Yes Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Gabon N Extant
Gambia N Extant
Georgia N Extant Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Ghana N Extant
Gibraltar (to UK) N Extant Yes
Greece N Extant Yes Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) V Extant
Guadeloupe (to France) N Extant
Guam (to USA) N Extant Yes
Guinea N Extant
Guinea-Bissau N Extant
Hong Kong (China) N Extant
Hungary N Extant Yes
Iceland N Extant Yes
India N Extant
Indonesia N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant Yes Yes
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan N Extant Yes Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant Yes
Kenya N Extant
Kuwait N Extant Yes Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant
Latvia N Extant Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Lesotho N Extant
Liberia N Extant
Libya N Extant
Liechtenstein N Extant Yes
Lithuania N Extant Yes
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Macao (China) N Extant
Madagascar N Extant
Malawi N Extant
Malaysia N Extant
Maldives N Extant Yes
Mali N Extant
Malta N Extant
Martinique (to France) N Extant
Mauritania N Extant
Mayotte (to France) N Extant
Micronesia, Federated States of N Extant Yes
Moldova N Extant Yes Yes
Mongolia N Extant Yes
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Montserrat (to UK) N Extant
Morocco N Extant
Mozambique N Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Namibia N Extant
Nepal N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger N Extant
Nigeria N Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Northern Mariana Islands (to USA) N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant Yes
Oman N Extant Yes Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palau U Extant
Palestine N Extant Yes Yes
Philippines N Extant
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal N Extant Yes
Qatar N Extant Yes Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes Yes Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Rwanda N Extant
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes Yes
Senegal N Extant
Serbia N Extant Yes
Seychelles N Extant
Sierra Leone N Extant
Singapore N Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
Somalia N Extant
South Africa N Extant
South Korea N Extant
South Sudan N Extant Yes Yes
Spain N Extant Yes
Sri Lanka N Extant
St Helena (to UK) V Extant
St Kitts and Nevis N Extant
St Lucia N Extant
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant
St Vincent and the Grenadines N Extant
Sudan N Extant
Svalbard and Jan Mayen Islands (to Norway) V Extant
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan N Extant Yes
Tanzania N Extant
Thailand N Extant
Togo N Extant
Trinidad and Tobago N Extant
Tunisia N Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant Yes
Uganda N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant
Western Sahara N Extant
Yemen N Extant Yes Yes
Zambia N Extant
Zimbabwe N Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Montenegro Lake Skadar
Azerbaijan Karayazi forest
Azerbaijan Alazani river valley
Azerbaijan Barda tugai forest
Azerbaijan Kura Delta
Azerbaijan Lake Sarysu
Azerbaijan Varvara Reservoir
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belarus Lower Pripyat
Belarus Sialiec
Belarus Beresina
Belarus Bielaje fish farm
Belarus Sož floodplain
Belarus Halubickaja Pušča
Belarus Paliessie fish farm
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Cyprus Klidhes Islands
Cyprus Akhna dam
Cyprus Akamas and Agia Aikaterini – Agia Paraskevi Gorges
Latvia Engure lake
Latvia Durbe lake meadows
Latvia Satini fish-ponds
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Ibisha Island
Romania Cârja - Maţa - Rădeanu - Roşcani
Romania Satchinez marsh
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Lake Siutghiol
Romania Rotbav fish-ponds
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Cursul Dunării - Baziaş - Porţile de Fier
Romania Miheşu de Câmpie-Taureni fish-ponds
Romania Danube Delta and Razelm-Sinoe complex
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Balta Mică a Brăilei
Romania Strejesti reservoir
Romania Ciocăneşti - Dunăre
Romania Lunca wood
Romania Socodor wood
Romania Fizes valley
Romania Mehedinti fish-ponds-Gruia
Slovenia Lake Cerknica
Slovenia Ribnica valley
Belgium Durme en Middenloop van de Schelde
Belgium IJzervallei-De Blankaart
Sweden Lake Solgen
Sweden Lake Hornborga
Sweden Ledskär – Bay of Karlholm
Sweden Lake Tämnaren
Sweden Färnebofjärden
Sweden Lake Östra Styran
Sweden Bay of Kil
Sweden Fjord of Stig
Poland Middle Vistula River Valley
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Tuchola Forest
Poland Jeziorsko reservoir
Poland Delta of the Swina river
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Upper Wisla River Valley
Poland Otmuchów reservoir
Poland Nida Rivar Valley
Poland Weltyn lakes
Poland Pisz forest
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Napiwodzko-Ramucka forest
Poland Biala Forest
Poland Odra riverine forests
Poland Oak-hornbeam forests in the Odra valley
Poland Tysmienica river valley
Poland Lower Vistula River Valley
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Vistula river mouth
Greece Lakes Volvi, Koroneia and Rentina Gorge
Greece Mount Athos and surrounding marine area
Greece River Axios
Greece Axios, Loudias and Aliakmonas rivers' deltas
Greece Agios Mamas marsh
Greece Mesolongi and Aitoliko lagoons, Acheloos delta and Evinos estuary
Greece Mount Ochi and surrounding marine area
Greece Alyki lagoon, Aigio
Greece Divari Pylou (Gialova) lagoon and Sfaktiria island
Greece Lakes Chortarolimni and Alyki, Moudros gulf, Diapori fen and Fakos peninsula, Limnos
Greece Nea Fokaia marshes
Greece Nisyros island and surrounding islets
Greece Lake Stymfalia
Greece Islands and islets of northern Sporades and northwestern coast of Alonnisos
Greece Dionysades islets, Crete
Greece Lake Agras
Greece Aliakmonas gorge
Greece Rodopos peninsula, Crete
Greece Apsalos and Moglenitsa gorges
Greece Kato Olympos, Tempi gorge and mount Ossa
Greece Kompsatos valley
Greece Pineios delta
Greece Megalo and Mikro Livari lagoons, Istiaia
Greece Artzan reservoir
Greece Mount Kerketio (Koziakas)
Greece Douskon and Kasidiaris mountains, Delvinaki lakes and Gormou valley
Greece Lake Kourna, Almyros delta and Georgioupolis coast, Crete
Greece Kinaros and Levitha islands and surrounding islets
Greece Prespa National Park and Varnountas mountains
Greece Reservoirs of former lake Karla
Greece Southwestern Lesvos and Petrified forest
Greece Gera gulf, Ntipi and Charamida marshes, Lesvos
Greece Paros and Antiparos islands and surrounding islets
Greece Alyki Kitrous lagoon
Greece Valtou mountains
Greece Fournoi island
Greece Mount Itamos
Greece Acherontas gorge and estuary
Greece Amvrakikos gulf
Greece Astypalaia island and surrounding islets
Greece Kalloni Gulf, Lesvos
Greece Mati wetland of Tyrnavos
Greece Kalamas delta
Greece Evros delta
Greece Lake Kerkini
Greece Lake Ismarida (Mitrikou)
Greece Lakes Cheimaditis and Zazari
Greece Porto Lagos, lake Vistonida and coastal lagoons
Greece Strymonas estuary
Greece Nestos delta and coastal lagoons
Greece Nestos gorge
Greece Lakes Vegoritis and Petron
Greece Lake Kastoria
Greece Northern Evros and Ardas riparian forest
Greece Psara and Antipsara islands and surrounding islets
Greece National Park of Dadia - Lefkimi - Soufli forest
Greece Lake Amvrakia
Greece Kotychi lagoon
Greece Kalogria lagoon, Strofylia forest and Lamia marshes
Greece South forest complex of Evros prefecture
Greece Dadia - Dereio - Aisymi forest
Greece Lagoons of Kerkyra island
Finland Paimionlahti bay
Finland Köyliönjärvi and Pyhäjärvi lakes
Finland Puurijärvi-Isosuo wetlands
Finland Koskeljärvi, Vaaljärvi and Pitkäjärvi lakes
Finland Pori archipelago and wetlands
Finland Kirkkonummi archipelago
Finland Hanko western archipelago
Finland Tammisaari and Inkoo western archipelago
Finland Teutjärvi and Suvijärvi lakes
Finland Kirkon-Vilkkiläntura Bay
Finland Siikalahti bay and Sammallampi lake
Finland Artjärvi wetlands
Finland Maaninka wetlands
Finland Pitkäranta
Finland Lapväärti wetlands
Finland Kristiinankaupunki southern archipelago
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Danube reach between Gönyû and Szob
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Khoper river near Il'men' lake
Russia (European) Valley of Safarovka river
Russia (European) Western Ilmen area
Russia (European) Volga Delta
Russia (European) Chudsko-Pskovski Lake and the adjacent areas
Russia (European) Terekhovski oak-forest
Russia (European) Kalininski Plavny
Russia (European) Zavidovo Reserve, including Lotoshinski, Klinski and Diatlovo fish ponds
Spain Odiel and Tinto marshes and Huelva coastal lagoons
Spain Brozas-Membrío
Spain Malpartida de Cáceres-Arroyo de la Luz
Spain Castronuño-Zamora
Spain River Moros
Spain Albufera de Mallorca and Albufereta de Pollença marshes
Spain Cogul-Alfés steppes
Spain Redbeeds and copses of Aranjuez
Spain Villafáfila
Spain Esla dam
Spain Cádiz bay
Spain Isla Cristina and Ayamonte marshes and Prado lagoon
Spain Guadalquivir marshes
Spain Borbollón reservoir
Spain Ría de Arosa (O Grove) estuary
Spain Las Cañas lake
Spain Pitillas and Dos Reinos lagoons
Ukraine Kyivs'ke reservoir
Ukraine Utlyuk lyman
Ukraine Karkinits'ka and Dzharylgats'ka bays
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Polis'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Teterivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Rzhyschivs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
Ukraine Shats'ki lakes
Ukraine Bilosarajs'ka peninsula
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Sul's'ka bay
Ukraine Cape Martiyan
Ukraine Chervone marsh
Ukraine Udaj river valley
Ukraine Kanivs'kyi Nature Reserve
Ukraine Dniprovs'ko-Oril's'kyj Nature Reserve
Ukraine Pryp'yat' river valley
Ukraine Petropavlivs'kyj lyman
Ukraine Velykomykhailivskyj forest
Ukraine Supij marsh
Ukraine Dnister delta
Ukraine Cheremske mire
Ukraine Korotchenkivs'ki meadows
Ukraine Lyman lake
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Bagerove
Ukraine Tarkhankuts'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Stanychno-Lugans'ke fish-farm
Ukraine Dranyts'kyj protected locality
Ukraine Klivodyns'kyj protected locality
Ukraine Dgulyn lake
Ukraine Dnestr valley between Staryj Martyniv and Marynopil' villages
Ukraine Fishponds near Kukil'nyky village
Ukraine Ingul river valley
Ukraine Kinburns'kyj peninsula
Ukraine Samars'kyj forest
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Kozats'ki islands)
Ukraine Oril' river valley
Ukraine Mzha river valley
Ukraine Chonovyny marsh
Ukraine Latorytsya river valley near Chop
Ukraine Izyums'ka Luka forest
Ukraine Bakhtyn river valley
Ukraine Molochna river valley
Ukraine Carpathian Vulkanichnyj Mountains
Ukraine Korostushevskoe Game Reserve
Ukraine Radomyshl's'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Samara river valley
Ukraine Ikva river valley
Ukraine Zakhidnyj Bug river valley
Ukraine Novograd-Volunskoe Game Reserve
Ukraine Ushomyrs'ke Game Reserve
Ukraine Vovk river valley
Ukraine Lake near Magazinka village
Ukraine Meadows near Prociv village
Ukraine Debal'tsivs'ke lake
France Ried de Colmar et Sélestat
France Vallée du Rhin : Village-neuf à Biescheim
France Vallée du Rhin : Marckolsheim à Strasbourg
France Vallée du Rhin : Strasbourg à Lauterbourg
France Massif des Vosges: Hautes Vosges
France Val d'Allier Bourbonnais
France Haut Val d'Allier
France Montagne de la Serre
France Sologne Bourbonnaise
France Vallée de la Loire: Pit majeur d'Iguerande à Décize
France Gorges de la Truyère
France Bassin d'Arcachon et Banc d'Arguin
France Barthes de l'Adour
France Barrage d'Artix et Saligue du Gave de Pau
France Domaine d'Orx
France Garonne : marais de Bordeaux
France Réserve Naturelle du courant d'Huchet
France Arjuzanx
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Nord Médoc
France Estuaire de la Gironde : marais du Blayais
France Baie des Veys et Marais du Cotentin
France Iles Saint Marcouf
France Forêts du Perche
France Estuaires du Trieux et du Jaudy
France Rade de Brest: Baie de Daoulas et Anse du Poulmic
France Marais de la Baie d'Audierne
France Baies de Morlaix et de Carantec
France Golfe du Morbihan et Etier de Penerf
France Rade de Lorient
France Baie de Goulven
France Lacs de la Forêt d'Orient
France Lac du Der-Chantecoq et étangs latéraux
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Blois
France Brenne centrale
France Brenne Sud
France Vallée de la Loire : confluence Loire-Vienne
France Basse vallée de L'Indre
France Vallée de la Loire : environs de Montlouis-sur-Loire
France Etangs de Sologne: St Viatre, Marcilly-en-Gault et forêt de Bruadan
France Lac de Rillé et forêts voisines
France Vallée de la Loire : Orléanais
France Forêt d'Orléans: massifs d'Ingrannes et de Lorris
France Etang de Biguglia
France Etang d'Urbino et zones humides périphériques
France Vallée de la Saône de Corre à Broye
France Basse Vallée du Doubs : Dole Sud
France Estuaire et embouchure de la Seine
France Boucle de Moisson
France Bassée et plaines adjacentes
France Etang et Forêt de Villefermoy
France Etangs de la Woëvre: lac de Madine
France Etangs de la Woëvre: la Chaussée
France Etang de Lindre
France Vallée de la Meuse
France Etang des Landes
France Gorges de la Dordogne
France Etangs de Leucate et Lapalme
France Etangs Narbonnais
France Etangs Montpellierains
France Etangs de Vendres, Pissevache et Lespignan
France Etangs de Canet et de Villeneuve-de-la-Raho et embouchure du Tech
France Petite Camargue fluvio-lacustre
France Petite Camargue laguno-marine
France Vallées de la Scarpe et de l'Escaut
France Cap Gris-nez
France Moyenne Vallée de la Durance
France Camargue
France Marais entre Crau et Grand Rhône: Meyranne, Chanoine, Plan de Bourg et Salins du Caban
France Salins d'Hyères et de Pesquiers
France Etangs de Citis, Lavalduc, Engrenier, Pourra, l'Estomac, Fos et salines de Rassuen et de Fos
France Vallée de la Durance : de Tallard à Sisteron
France Vallée de la Charente : amont d'Angoulême
France Anse de Fouras, baie d'Yves et marais de Rochefort
France Anse du Fiers d'Ars en Ré
France Bonne Anse
France Region de Pressac, étang de Combourg
France Etangs et marais du bassin de la Somme
France Forêts picardes : Compiègne, Laigue, Ourscamp
France Forêts picardes : massif de Retz
France Marais de Sacy
France Vallée de l'Oise de Thourotte à Vendeuil
France Marais de la Souche
France Forêts picardes : massif des Trois Forêts et bois du Roi
France Estuaires picards : baies de Somme et d'Authie
France Traicts et marais salants de la Presqu'île Guérandaise
France Marais de Brière
France Estuaire de la Loire
France Lac de Grand-Lieu
France Baie de Bourgneuf et marais breton
France Marais et forêt d'Olonne
France Vallée de la Loire : de Nantes à Montsoreau
France Marais poitevin et baie de l'Aiguillon
France La Dombes
France Val de Saône
France Val de Drôme: Les Ramières-printegarde
France Iles du Haut-Rhône
France Plaine du Forez
France Ile de la Platière
France Lac Léman (partie française)
France Lac et marais du Bourget
France Val d'Allier : Saint-Yorre-Joze
France Vallée de la Loire : gorges de la Loire
France Vallée de l'Aube, de la Superbe et Marigny
France Mars sur Allier
France Boucle de Pose et de Muids
France Massifs de Fontainebleau et zones humides adjacentes
France Marais de Fontenay-le-Vicomte et d'Itteville
France Estuaire de la Charente
France Vallée de la Charente et de la Seugne (Cabariot-Pons/St-Sever-de-Saintonge)
France Ile d'Oléron, marais de Brouage-Saint-Agnant
France Marais et estuaire de la Seudre
France Marais de Mazerolles-Petit Mars
France Planèze de Saint-Flour
United Kingdom Lea Valley
United Kingdom Thames Estuary and Marshes
Italy Circeo National Park
Italy Venice lagoon
Italy Pian di Spagna and Lake Mezzola
Italy River Po: from the mouth of Adda river to Ostiglia
Italy Brabbia peatland, Lake Varese and Lake Biandronno
Italy River Mincio and Bosco Fontana
Italy Po Delta
Italy Piave river
Italy Punte Alberete and Valle della Canna, Pineta San Vitale and Pialassa della Baiona
Poland Rakutowskie swamps
Poland Slowinska Site
Czechia Dehtár pond
Czechia Rezabinec pond
Czechia Lednicke rybniky ponds (Lednice fish-ponds)
Sweden Bay of Torslanda
Serbia Gornje Podunavlje
Romania Bistreţ
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Serbia Becej fish-pond
Serbia Jegricka
Serbia Koviljski rit
Serbia Bosutska forest
Serbia Carska bara
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Serbia Ovcar-Kablar gorge
Slovakia Senné
Slovakia Danube floodplains
Slovakia SÍňava
Serbia Vlasina
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Mala Vrbica
Armenia Armash fish-farm
Norway Smøla archipelago
Norway Nordre Øyeren & Sørumsneset
Austria March/Thaya riverine forest
Austria Vienna forest
Austria Riverine forests in the Tullnerfeld
Austria Wachau
Austria Niederösterreichische Randalpen
Austria Ötscher-Dürrenstein
Austria Bohemian forest and Mühl valley
Austria Meadows and lakes in the foreland of the Alps in Salzburg and Upper Austria
Austria Lower Mur valley
Germany Hördter Rheinaue
Germany Ploetzkau flood-plain forest
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Ponds and Elbe valley near Torgau
Germany Rhön Biosphere Reserve
Germany Schwalm-Nette-Platte and Grenzwald
Germany Main valley near Schweinfurt
Germany Rötelsee-Weihergebiet incl. Regenaue and Chambaue
Germany Berchtesgaden National Park
Germany Altmühl valley between Treuchtlingen and Leutershausen with Altmühlsee
Germany Ammersee
Germany Spreewald
Germany Grosshartmannsdorfer Grossteich
Germany Isar valley: Gottfrieding - Plattling incl. Isar mouth
Germany Vogelfreistätte Mittlere Isar-Stauseen
Germany Main valley near Volkach: Fahr-Dettelbach
Germany Danube valley: Regensburg-Vilshofen
Germany Wagbach lowlands
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Borgfelder Wümmewiesen
Germany Blockland - lower Wümme valley - Westliches Hollerland
Germany Niedervieland, Ochtumniederung
Germany Mittelwesermarsch
Germany Weserstaustufe Schlüsselburg
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Heubachniederung/ Schwarzes Venn/ Borkenberge/ Halterner Seen
Germany Recker Moor/ Düsterdieker Niederung/ Seester Feld
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Land Wursten
Germany Lech-Donau-Winkel: Lechstausee Feldheim and Donaustausee Bertoldsheim
Germany Main valley: Eltmann - Hassfurt
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Lower Inn: Haiming - Neuhaus including the Neuhaus, Egglfing, Ering, and Simbach reservoirs
Germany Federseeried
Germany Duvenstedter Brook
Germany Gladenbach mountains east of Herborn
Germany Hessian Rhine alluvion
Germany Rothenbach pond
Germany Rheinaue Bingen-Ingelheim
Germany Northern Black Forest, west of the Murg
Germany Northern Black Forest, east of the Murg
Germany Middle-eastern Black Forest
Norway Lake Vansjø
Croatia Kopacki Rit Special Zoological Reserve
Croatia Poilovlje with Carp Fishponds
Croatia Jelas Field
Croatia Neretva Delta
Croatia Krka and Surrounding Plateau
Croatia Vrana Lake and Jasen
Croatia Alluvial wetlands of the River Drava
Croatia Grudnjak fish-ponds
Croatia Nasicka Breznica fish-ponds
Croatia Donji Miholjac fish-ponds
Turkey Bosphorus
Afghanistan Ab-i-Istada
Afghanistan Hamun-i-Puzak
Israel Southern Arava valley and Elat mountains
Israel Lake Kinneret and Kinerot
Israel Carmel coast
Israel Jezre'el, Harod and Bet She'an valleys
Israel Hefer valley
Iraq Haur Al Hammar
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lavandavil Wildlife Refuge
Iran, Islamic Republic of Miankaleh Peninsula and Gorgan Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gomishan marshes and Turkoman steppes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Horeh Bamdej
Iran, Islamic Republic of Shadegan marshes and tidal mudflats of Khor-al Amaya and Khor Musa
Iran, Islamic Republic of Izeh and Sheikho lakes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hilleh Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khouran Straits
Oman Barr al Hikman
Oman Duqm
Saudi Arabia Tarut Bay
Saudi Arabia Al-Ha'ir
Russia (European) Pavlovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Krasnokamski forest
Russia (European) Bereznyagovski forest
Hong Kong (China) Inner Deep Bay and Shenzhen River catchment area
North Korea Lake Kwangpo
Philippines Manila Bay
Mongolia Buir Lake
Russia (Asian) Selenga delta
Belarus Biarezina-Hajna
Belarus Prostyr
Estonia Otepää
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoye Topol'noye lake
Azerbaijan Shahdidi spit
Azerbaijan Sahil settlement - Shelf factory
Azerbaijan Yashma Island
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Russia (Central Asian) Vaganovskaya
Russia (Central Asian) Tarutino Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Cape Krutiki of Lake Chebarkul'
Russia (European) Podozerskie open pits
Russia (European) Yeiski salt-lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Pesochnoe Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Cher'omukhovo Lake
Russia (European) Khanskoye Lake
Russia (Central Asian) Bol'shoe Mit'kino Lake
Russia (European) Kiziltash limans
Russia (Central Asian) Verkhneoschskaya
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Provadiysko-Royaksko plateau
Bulgaria Ivailovgrad Reservoir
Bulgaria Lakat Island
Bulgaria Kresna Gorge
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Bulgaria Straldzha Complex
Bulgaria Galata
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Bakarlaka
Bulgaria Balchik
Bulgaria Arda Bridge
Bulgaria Dobrostan
Bulgaria Vasilyovska Mountain
Bulgaria Golia Island
Bulgaria Malak Preslavets marsh
Bulgaria Zvanichevo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Hadzi Dimitrovo Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Maritsa-Plovdiv
Bulgaria Zlato Pole
Bulgaria Adata-Tundzha
Bulgaria Obnova Fish-ponds
Bulgaria Gorni Dabnik-Telish Reservoir
Bulgaria Topchiite
France Estuaire de la Bidassoa et Baie de Fontarabie
France Côte Médocaine: dunes boisées et dépressions humides
France Estuaire de l'Orne
France Baie du Mont Saint Michel et Ile des Landes
France Baie de Saint-Brieuc
France Baie de Vilaine
France Baie de Quiberon
France Vallée de la Conie et Beauce centrale
France Vallée de la Loire : La Charité-sur-Loire
France Bassin du Drugeon: Pontarlier-Frasne
France Plateaux de Millevaches et de Gentioux
France Vallée de la Garonne : Moissac
France Salines de l'Etang de Berre
France Basse Vallée de la Durance
France Plateau de Bellefonds
France Marais arrières littoraux picards
France Basses Vallées Angevines
France Pointe de Grave
France Val de Chiers et environs de Spincourt
France Basse vallée du Var
France Col de l'Escrinet
France Etangs d'Argonne
France Vallée de l'Aisne
France Etang du Bagnas
France Vallée de la Garonne : Boussens à Carbonne
France Vallée de la Garonne : Palayre et environs
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between Gorodets and N.Novgorod
Russia (European) Marshes near Pavlovskoye Zaoch'ye and adjoining floodplain of Oka river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Volga river between N.Novgorod and Pamyat' Parizhskoi Kommuny village
Russia (European) Forests and wetlands in the valley of the Nuzhma river
Russia (European) Kurmyshskaya flood-land
Russia (Central Asian) Saltaim-Tenis lake
Russia (Central Asian) Kuisakskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Central Meschera lake system
Russia (Central Asian) Zingeika lake
Russia (Central Asian) Reservoir near river Sukhaya
Russia (Central Asian) Kuznetsky Alatau Zapovednik
Russia (European) Nothern part of Gor'koe reservoir with spurs
Russia (European) Varnavinski zakaznik
Russia (European) Forests, bogs and gathering of the Common Cranes near Voskresenskoye village
Russia (European) Floodplain of Moksha river and Common Crane autumn aggegation near villages Khohlikha and Shaprikha
Russia (European) Kamsko-Bakaldinskiye marshes
Russia (European) Floodplain of Oka river up-stream of the Murom
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Oka river between the mouth of Klyaz'ma river and Dzerzhinsk
Russia (European) Marshes near villages Frolishchi and Chistoye
Russia (Central Asian) Taezhno-Mikhaylovsky
Russia (Central Asian) Kamyshnoye lake
Russia (Central Asian) Shestakovskiye marshes
Russia (Central Asian) Ata-Anay Lake
Bahrain Tubli Bay
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Kobi
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bandar Kiashar lagoon and mouth of Sefid Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Seyed Mohalli, Zarin Kola and Larim Sara
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Alagol, Lake Ulmagol and Lake Ajigol
Iran, Islamic Republic of Incheh Borun lake and marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lashgarak and Latian dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez dam
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamidieh (Omidiyeh) plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gandoman marsh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Gavekhoni lake, and marshes of the lower Zaindeh Rud
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Hamoun-i Sabari and Hamoun-i Hirmand
Iran, Islamic Republic of South end of the Hamoun-i Puzak
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Shur, Rud-i-Shirin and Rud-i-Minab deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Khor Jask
Iran, Islamic Republic of Rud-i-Jagin and Rud-i-Gabrik deltas
Iran, Islamic Republic of Pozam - Maytab coast
Iran, Islamic Republic of Bahu Kalat (Gandu) Protected Area
Iraq Shuweicha Marsh
Iraq Haur Al Rayan and Umm Osbah
Iraq Haur Uwainah
Iraq Central Marshes
Israel Judean foothills
Kuwait Dawhat Kazima
Kuwait Ad-Doha Nature Reserve
Kuwait Sulaibikhat Bay
Oman Musandam islands
Oman Al Batinah coast
Oman Ra's as Sawadi - Juzor as Sawadi
Oman Quriyat - Daghmar
Oman Ras al Hadd
Oman Masirah island
Oman Khawr Ghawi
Qatar Al-Aliyah island
Saudi Arabia Abu Ali
Saudi Arabia Gulf of Salwah
Saudi Arabia Madinat Yanbu al-Sinaiyah
Saudi Arabia Jiddah south corniche and port
Saudi Arabia Wadi Turabah and Jabal Ibrahim
Saudi Arabia Malaki dam
Saudi Arabia Jizan Bay
Saudi Arabia Farasan Islands
Syria Buhayrat al-Assad
Syria Bahrat Homs
United Arab Emirates Ramtha lagoons
United Arab Emirates Ras Al Khor Wildlife Sanctuary (Khor Dubai)
Yemen Ta'izz wadis
Uzbekistan Balykchi Fish Farm
Austria Neusiedler See
Austria Riverine forests on the Danube east of Vienna
Austria Feuchte Ebene and Rauchwarther Platte
Turkmenistan Karabogaz
Turkmenistan Jarsay - Khangui
Turkmenistan Soltandag - Gyzylburun
Turkmenistan Khanguyy
Turkmenistan Garagumderya
Turkmenistan Turkmen Bay
Austria Fish-ponds in the Waldviertel
Austria Storage lakes on the lower Inn
Italy Magredi of Pordenone
Austria Ibmer Moor
Austria Salzach valley
Austria Styrian Joglland
Austria Niedere Tauern
Austria Styrian Enns valley
Italy Carniche pre-Alps
Ukraine KardashinskI mires
Ukraine Chornobyl zone
Ukraine Gerojsk Lakes
Ukraine Serednyotomakivske reservior
Yemen Aden
Ukraine Reservoir on r. Chechva with territories adjacent
Ukraine Samars'ka bay
Ukraine Vorskla river valley, near vv. Ivanivka-Kashans'ke, Kurikovka
Ukraine Voloshans'ka dacha
Kazakhstan Shaglyteniz Lake and marshes
Ukraine Upper of r.Mokra Sura
Turkmenistan Deryatakyr
Ukraine Sinelnikov Complex
Kazakhstan Topar Lake System
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes
Kazakhstan Lesser Aral Sea
Kazakhstan Cherniy (Black) Irtysh Delta
Italy Adda Sud Park heronries
Italy Lomellina and Heronries of Pavia province
Italy Vercelli rice-fields
Italy River Sesia heronries
Kazakhstan Sarshyganak Lake
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Kazakhstan Ters-Ashchibulak Reservoir
Turkmenistan Mergen
Turkmenistan Saryyazy
Italy Marengo heronry
Italy Lake Candia
Italy Novara heronries
Kazakhstan Kushum Lakes
Russia (European) Staromainskiy forest and bay
Kazakhstan Tentek River Delta
Finland Oulu region wetlands
Finland Kangasala wetlands
Finland Hollola wetlands
Finland Kirkkojärvi lake and Lupinlahti bay
Finland Porvoonjoki Delta
Finland Laajalahti bay, Vanhankaupunginlahti bay and Viikki
Finland Oura and Enskeri archipelagos
Finland Mietoistenlahti bay
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Lebanon Cheikh Zennad
Russia (European) Severo-donetskaya
Russia (European) Bryn'
Russia (European) Ressetinskiye floods
Russia (European) Klyazminsko-Balakhninskaya lowland
Germany Lower Aller lowlands
Germany Weser valley near Stolzenau and Landesbergen
Germany Oker valley near Vienenburg
Germany Viehmoor with Leiferder Teiche
Germany Ahlhorner fishponds
Germany Schleswig-Holstein Wadden Sea National Park (includes the Halligs, Kniepsand/Amrum, Lister Koog, Rantumbecken, Rickelsb
Germany Main valley and Steiger foothills near Schweinfurt and Volkach
Germany Rhäden near Obersuhl and Bosserode
Germany Wetterau
Germany Schwalmaue around Schwalmstadt
Germany Untermain
Germany Wümme lowlands Borgfeld-Fischerhude
Germany Northern Black Forest
Germany Central Black Forest
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland Dublin Bay
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Ireland Cork Harbour
Côte d'Ivoire Monogaga Classified Forest
Ireland Inner Galway Bay
Ireland Clew Bay
Ireland Carlingford Lough
Ireland Lough Foyle
Romania Câmpia Crişurilor
Kyrgyzstan Lake Chatyr-Kul
Kyrgyzstan Tokmak Pheasant Reserve
Kyrgyzstan Water reservation of Northern Chu Valley
Poland Insko Site
Poland Omulew and Plodownica Rivers Valleys
Poland Slawskie Lakes
Poland Middle Warta River Valley
Poland Barycz river valley
Poland Upper Odra River Valley
Poland Radlow Forest
Poland Kurpie Site
Poland Jaktorow and Krasnicza Wola Fishponds
Russia (Central Asian) Holes of the Karasuk river downstream
Bosnia and Herzegovina Hutovo blato
Madagascar Baly Bay National Park
Kazakhstan Shagyrkol and Mamyrkol lakes
Kazakhstan Batpakkol lake
Syria Sabkhat al-Jabboul
Estonia Irbe strait
Estonia Väinameri
Estonia Vooremaa
Estonia Kasti bay
Estonia Lõu bay
Estonia Luitemaa
Estonia Mullutu
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Siiksaare-Oessaare bays
Estonia Kunda
Turkmenistan Zeyit - Kelif
Kazakhstan Chardara Reservoir
Kazakhstan Caspian Sea shore between Volga and Ural River Deltas
Kazakhstan Karakol Lake
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Sorbulak Lake System
Kazakhstan Kapchagay Canyon
Kazakhstan Balykty Lake
Greece Thessaly plain
Greece Lake Kalodiki, Margariti and Karteri marshes
Estonia Lahemaa
Mauritania Lac de Mâl
Mauritania Lac d'Aleg
Mauritania Aftout es Sâheli
Mauritania Chott Boul
Philippines Lalaguna marsh
Philippines Agusan marsh
Sweden Lake Gammelstadsviken
Kazakhstan Ereymentau Mountains
Kazakhstan Irtysh-Karaganda Waterworks 10
Kazakhstan Kyzylkol Lake
Kazakhstan Syrdarya Delta Lakes
Kazakhstan Karagie Depression
Kazakhstan Tyulen’i (Seal) Islands
Kazakhstan Lower reaches of the Emba River
Kazakhstan Delta of the Ural River
Kazakhstan Kazakhstan portion of the river Volga's Delta - Zhambay
Sweden Archipelago of Östergötland
Sweden Lomma Bight
Sweden Coastal area of Oskarshamn

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Aquaculture Ponds suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Canals and Drainage Channels, Ditches suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Irrigated Land (includes irrigation channels) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Ponds (below 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Wastewater Treatment Areas suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Artificial/Aquatic & Marine Artificial/Aquatic - Water Storage Areas (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable breeding
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Mangrove Vegetation Above High Tide Level suitable non-breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable breeding
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Seasonally Wet/Flooded suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Mud Flats and Salt Flats suitable non-breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable breeding
Marine Intertidal Salt Marshes (Emergent Grasses) suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Inland Deltas suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Rivers/Streams/Creeks (includes waterfalls) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Permanent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Lakes (over 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Freshwater Marshes/Pools (under 8ha) suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Lakes and Flats suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable breeding
Wetlands (inland) Seasonal/Intermittent Saline, Brackish or Alkaline Marshes/Pools suitable non-breeding
Altitude 0 - 4000 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Scale Unknown/Unrecorded Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Likely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species disturbance, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Clostridium botulinum Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Unspecified species Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Viral/prion-induced diseases - Avian Influenza Virus (H5N1 subtype) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Rapid Declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Species mortality
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents - Soil erosion, sedimentation Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Other household goods - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2021) Species factsheet: Ardea cinerea. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/09/2021. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2021) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 21/09/2021.