EN
Grey-headed Albatross Thalassarche chrysostoma



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Brooke, M. de L. 2004. Albatrosses and Petrels Across the World. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and Taxonomy of Australian Birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Cramp, S. and Simmons, K.E.L. (eds). 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
Robertson, C. J. R.; Nunn, G. B. 1998. Towards a new taxonomy for albatrosses. In: Robertson, G.; Gales, R. (ed.), Albatross biology and conservation, pp. 13-19. Surrey Beatty & Sons, Chipping Norton, Australia.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #http://www.museum.lsu.edu/~Remsen/SACCBaseline.htm#.
Turbott, E.G. 1990. Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand, Wellington.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A4bd A4bd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered A4bd
2016 Endangered A4bd
2013 Endangered A4bd
2012 Vulnerable A4bd
2010 Vulnerable A4b,d
2008 Vulnerable A4b,d
2007 Vulnerable
2005 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2003 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 107,000,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 78,600,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 1,800 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 250000 medium estimated 2012
Population trend Decreasing medium estimated -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 30 - - -

Population justification: There are an estimated c.98,601 pairs breeding per year of this biennially breeding species, based on annual breeding population estimates of 47,674 pairs on South Georgia in 2004 (Poncet et al. 2006), 18,063 pairs in Chile in 2015 (Robertson et al. 2007, 2008, 2016), 7,900 pairs on Kerguelen in 1987 (Weimerskirch et al. 1988), 8,611 pairs on Campbell Island (Sagar 2014), 8,541 pairs on Marion Island in 2016 (ACAP unpubl. data), 5,940 on Crozet in 1982 (Jouventin et al. 1984), 1,506 pairs on Prince Edward Island in 2009 (Ryan et al. 2009) and 100 pairs on Macquarie Island in 2016 (ACAP unpubl. data). This is thought to be equivalent to at least 250,000 mature individuals (Croxall and Gales 1998, Brooke 2004).

Trend justification: At South Georgia, the population is estimated to have declined by 25% between 1977 and 2004 (Poncet et al. 2006, R. Phillips pers. comm. 2012) , and by 43% between 2004 and 2015 (Poncet et al. 2017), which equates to a projected decline of 85% or even higher if declines continued at this rate over three generations. On Campbell Island, data from 2004 suggest that the population declined by over 75% between 1940 – 2004 (Nel et al. 2002, Moore 2004), which would equate to a 95% decline over three generations. However, recent unpublished information suggests that this population underwent a major decline until 1997 but has since stabilised (W. Misiak in litt. 2013). Population trends are unknown for Chile, Iles Kerguelen and Iles Crozet (representing around one third of the global population). Also, in contrast to South Georgia and Campbell Island, the population on Marion Island has reported a 1.2% annual population increase from 1988-2011 (ACAP 2012). Combining these data, even if the Chilean, Iles Kerguelen and Iles Crozet colonies are assumed to be stable, the data from South Georgia and Campbell Island result in a projected global population decline of 65.4% over three generations. Given the uncertainty around these estimates, particularly the likely future trends, and the long trend period, a decline of 50-79% over 90 years is provisionally estimated.


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Angola V Extant
Antarctica N Extant Yes
Argentina N Extant Yes
Australia N Extant Yes
Bouvet Island (to Norway) U Extant
Brazil N Extant Yes
Chile N Extant Yes
Falkland Islands (Malvinas) N Extant Yes
French Southern Territories N Extant Yes
Heard Island and McDonald Islands (to Australia) N Extant Yes
Namibia N Extant Yes
New Zealand N Extant Yes
Panama V Extant Yes
Peru U Extant
South Africa N Extant Yes
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands N Extant Yes
St Helena (to UK) N Extant Yes
Uruguay N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Antarctica Atlantic, Antarctic 10 - Marine
Antarctica Atlantic, Antarctic 11 - Marine
Antarctica Atlantic, Antarctic 12 - Marine
Antarctica Atlantic, Antarctic 13 - Marine
Antarctica Atlantic, Antarctic 14 - Marine
Antarctica Atlantic, Antarctic 22 - Marine
Antarctica Pacific, Antarctic 1 - Marine
Antarctica Pacific, Antarctic 2 - Marine
Argentina Islas Georgias del Sur
Australia Macquarie Island
Chile Islas Diego Ramírez y Rocas Norte
Chile Islas Ildefonso
French Southern Territories Île de l'Est
French Southern Territories Île de la Possession
French Southern Territories Île des Pingouins
French Southern Territories Îles des Apôtres
French Southern Territories Îles Nuageuses and Île Clugny
High Seas Atlantic, Antarctic 19 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 36 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 37 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 47 - Marine
High Seas Atlantic, Southwest 50 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southeast 20 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southeast 27 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southeast 29 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southeast 30 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southeast 31 - Marine
High Seas Pacific, Southeast 32 - Marine
New Zealand Campbell (offshore)
New Zealand Campbell Islands
New Zealand Campbell Islands (nearshore)
South Africa Prince Edward Islands Special Nature Reserve
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands Atlantic, Antarctic 20 - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia - mainland, islands, islets and stacks
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia 1 - Marine
South Georgia & the South Sandwich Islands South Georgia 2 - Marine

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subantarctic major breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Sea Cliffs and Rocky Offshore Islands major breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major non-breeding
Marine Neritic Pelagic major breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major non-breeding
Marine Oceanic Epipelagic (0-200m) major breeding
Altitude   Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (large scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Fishing & harvesting aquatic resources - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Stresses
Species mortality
Climate change & severe weather Temperature extremes Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Whole (>90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 7
Stresses
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases - Mus musculus Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Thalassarche chrysostoma. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 06/12/2019.