VU
Grey Falcon Falco hypoleucos



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
Christidis, L. and Boles, W.E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
Christidis, L.; Boles, W. E. 2008. Systematics and taxonomy of Australian birds. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Australia.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - D1

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Vulnerable D1
2012 Vulnerable D1
2008 Near Threatened C2a(ii)
2004 Near Threatened
2000 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status nomadic Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Land-mass type - Australia
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 7,760,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 999 poor estimated 2010
Population trend Stable medium suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations 1 - - -
Largest subpopulations 100 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.2 - - -

Population justification:

The species always occurs at low densities and other grey raptors are often misreported as Grey Falcons; the AOO is nominally estimated at 0.1% of the EOO as the species has been encountered very infre­quently during extensive dedicated searching in many parts of arid Australia over the last decade (Schoenjahn 2011). By comparing the range and number of sightings per 1 degree block in the first Atlas (Blakers et al. 1984), it is estimated that the Grey Falcon occupies about 0.27× the area occupied by the Peregrine Falcon F. peregrinus (99 compared to 365 grid blocks) at an average of one-quarter its density. Given an estimated 3,000–5,000 pairs of Peregrines in Australia (Olsen and Olsen 1988, in Garnett et al. 2011), this suggests a total of 200 to 350 pairs of Grey Falcon (Schoe­njahn 2011). The second Atlas (Barrett et al. 2003) reports sightings in 118 (14%) compared with 384 (47%) of grid blocks, for the Grey Falcon and Peregrine Falcon respec­tively. At one-third the distribution and a little over half the density, the estimated population is 550–915 pairs. The average of the mid-point of these ranges, about 500 pairs, is considered appropriately precautionary, espe­cially considering the uncertainty and historical declines (Garnett et al. 2011), thus the population is estimated here at 999 mature individuals.

Trend justification: It may have been eliminated from some breeding areas early in the 20th century, particularly those with more than 500 mm of annual rainfall in New South Wales, where its eastern limit has also shifted further inland since the 1950s (Olsen 1998). This contraction in its breeding distribution (Garnett 1993) was attributed to habitat degradation, which reduced the suitability of some semi-arid habitat and restricted the species to the arid zone (Olsen 1998). The population is now suspected to be stable (Garnett and Crowley 2000, Garnett et al. 2011).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Australia N Extant Yes
Papua New Guinea V Extant

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Australia Boodjamulla
Australia Fortescue Marshes
Australia Fountain Springs
Australia Mornington Sanctuary
Australia Simpson Desert
Australia Sturt National Park

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Negligible declines Low Impact: 4
Stresses
Reduced reproductive success, Species mortality
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Invasive non-native/alien species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Invasive and other problematic species, genes & diseases Problematic native species/diseases Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Minority (<50%) Unknown Unknown
Stresses
Competition
Pollution Agricultural & forestry effluents Timing Scope Severity Impact
Past, Unlikely to Return Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Past Impact
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Reduced reproductive success

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Nestlings Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Eggs Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2017) Species factsheet: Falco hypoleucos. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2017. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2017) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 24/11/2017.