Grey-cheeked Parakeet Brotogeris pyrrhoptera


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
SACC. 2005 and updates. A classification of the bird species of South America. Available at: #

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - A2cd+3cd+4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2021 Vulnerable A2cd+3cd+4cd
2016 Endangered A2cd
2013 Endangered A2cd
2012 Endangered A2cd
2008 Endangered A2c,d; A4c,d
2004 Endangered
2000 Endangered
1994 Lower Risk/Near Threatened
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency medium
Land mass type land-mass type - continent
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 87,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely Fragmented -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000 poor inferred 2021
Population trend decreasing poor inferred -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 30-49 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 30-49 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-10 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 5.4 - - -

Population justification: The species is described as locally common in suitable habitat remnants (Juniper and Parr 1998). In 1995, the species was estimated to number 15,000 individuals, principally in Ecuador (Best et al. 1995). Since then the population has undergone a very rapid decline, but there are no up-to-date estimates of the population size.
The national population in Peru is currently estimated at 1,500 individuals (SERFOR 2018). Peru roughly contains 10% of the global range, and assuming that population densities are equivalent across the range the total population is inferred to number 15,000 individuals, which equates to 10,000 mature individuals. As such, the population value from 1995 may have been an underestimate.
It is tentatively assumed that the species forms at least two subpopulations, one in the extreme southwestern Ecuador and adjacent Peru, and one in Guayas and along the coast of west Ecuador. Based on observational records (eBird 2021) it is assumed that the largest subpopulation numbers >1,000 mature individuals.

Trend justification: The species has declined very rapidly in the past as a consequence of trapping for the cage-bird trade, together with habitat destruction, fragmentation and persecution. Even though the species can use a variety of habitats, its preferred forest and woodland habitats are being converted for agricultural purposes (Collar and Boesman 2020); over the past three generations (16.2 years; Bird et al. 2020), tree cover within the range has been lost at a rate of 4% (Global Forest Watch 2021).
A population decrease during the 20th century became marked in the early 1980s (Best et al. 1995; Juniper and Parr 1998), with 59,320 individuals reportedly imported by CITES countries in 1983-1988 and declines of 70% reported over ten years (Juniper and Parr 1998). Transect counts in Cerros de Amotape National Park and Tumbes National Reserve revealed a decline of 33.2% between 1992 and 2008 (Anon. 2009). Between 2007 and 2011, 216 individuals were counted on animal markets in Peru (Daut et al. 2015), and trapping is apparently continuing in many communities in Ecuador (Biddle et al. 2021). Population declines seem to have slowed down in recent years however. In Ecuador, the rate decline has been placed in the band 30-49% over three generations (Freile et al. 2019), while declines in the small population in Peru appear to have decreased considerably or stopped altogether (SERFOR 2018).
Preliminarily the overall decline is here placed in the band 30-49% over three generations, though this requires confirmation.

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Ecuador extant native yes
Peru extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Ecuador Abras de Mantequilla
Ecuador Alamor-Celica
Ecuador Bosque Protector Cerro Blanco
Ecuador Bosque Protector Jatumpamba-Jorupe
Ecuador Bosque Protector Molleturo Mullopungo
Ecuador Bosque Protector Puyango
Ecuador Cañón del río Catamayo
Ecuador Catacocha
Ecuador Cazaderos-Mangaurquillo
Ecuador Cerro de Hayas-Naranjal
Ecuador Ciénagas de Guayaquil
Ecuador Daucay
Ecuador Parque Nacional Machalilla y alrededores
Ecuador Reserva Biológica Tito Santos
Ecuador Reserva Buenaventura
Ecuador Reserva Ecológica Arenillas
Ecuador Reserva Ecológica Comunal Loma Alta
Ecuador Reserva Ecológica Manglares-Churute y Canal de Jambelí
Ecuador Reserva Natural Tumbesia-La Ceiba-Zapotillo
Ecuador Tambo Negro
Peru Coto de Caza El Angolo
Peru Parque Nacional Cerros de Amotape
Peru Suyo-La Tina

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Subtropical/Tropical Heavily Degraded Former Forest marginal resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry major resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland major resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist major resident
Altitude 200 - 1550 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Small-holder farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Agriculture & aquaculture Livestock farming & ranching - Small-holder grazing, ranching or farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Brotogeris pyrrhoptera. Downloaded from on 28/05/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 28/05/2023.