EN
Green Peafowl Pavo muticus



Taxonomy

Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2cd+3cd+4cd A2cd+3cd+4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2016 Endangered A2c+3c+4cd
2013 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2009 Endangered A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2008 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency Medium
Land mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,590,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals 10000-19999 poor suspected 2009
Population trend Decreasing poor suspected -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) 50-79 - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Largest subpopulations 1-89 - - -
Generation length (yrs) 6.1 - - -

Population justification: Although rare compared with historic numbers, improved survey methodology and increased effort has led to an increase in the reporting rate and thus the population estimate has been revised upwards to 10,000-19,999 mature individuals, to reflect this improved knowledge. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals. Nevertheless this remains a coarse estimate and warrants refinement.

Trend justification: Habitat modification and utilisation continue to be intense in South-East Asia; they have almost certainly precipitated declines in this species's population of more than 50% over the past three generations and these are projected to continue. However, the rate of decline appears to vary considerably across the species's range. In Myanmar, the population is stable (Tordoff et al. 2007, R. Cavalieri and T. Savini in litt 2018), but is confined to small populations, scattered over a mosaic of degraded habitats (T. Savini in litt. 2018, Shwe et al. unpublished data). In China, the species has already disappeared from 60% of its former habitat, while the remaining population is in decline (Kong et al. 2018, T. Savini in litt. 2018). The overall population trend in Vietnam is unclear. A significant decline in Yok Don National Park was observed over the 15 years between 1998-2013, however the recorded density in Cat Tien National Park increased over that period, suggesting that the trend there was possibly stable or increasing (Sukumal et al. 2015, 2017, S. Dowell in litt. 2018). The population in Thailand  appears to be stable or even locally increasing (S. Dowell, J.W. Duckworth in litt. 2018, T. Savini in litt. 2018). Though there are no recent data from Laos, the species is known from only few localities, where it has undergone drastic declines (Evans and Timmins 1996, Vongkhamheng 2015, T. Savini in litt. 2018). In Cambodia, recent surveys found the species more widespread than previously believed (T. Gray in litt. 2018), but subject to high levels of hunting and habitat loss, even in protected areas (Nuttall et al. 2016, Loveridge et al. 2017, T. Savini in litt. 2018). In Indonesia, the current trend is uncertain. Declines were noted as early as the first quarter of the 20th century, but current data suggest that the population might be stable (T. Savini in litt. 2018).


Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh N Extinct Yes
Cambodia N Extant Yes
China (mainland) N Extant Yes
India N Extinct Yes
Indonesia N Extant Yes
Laos N Extant Yes
Malaysia N Extinct Yes
Myanmar N Extant Yes
Thailand N Extant Yes
Vietnam N Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Cambodia Chhep
Cambodia Lomphat
Cambodia Mondulkiri - Kratie Lowlands
Cambodia O Skach
Cambodia Phnom Bokor
Cambodia Sekong River
Cambodia Snoul / Keo Sema / O Reang
Cambodia Upper Srepok Catchment
Cambodia Upper Stung Sen Catchment
Cambodia Virachey
Cambodia Western Siem Pang
China (mainland) Ailaoshan
China (mainland) Caiyanghe
China (mainland) Gaoligong Shan Nature Reserve (southern section)
China (mainland) Jiangzhongshan
China (mainland) Jinggu Banpo
China (mainland) Konglonghe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nabanhe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nangunhe
China (mainland) Nuozadu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qinghua Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Tongbiguan
China (mainland) Weiyuanjiang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Wuliangshan
China (mainland) Xishuangbanna
China (mainland) Yongde Daxueshan
China (mainland) Zhangmuqing Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zixishan Nature Reserve
India Ango or Anko Hills
India Dhansiri Reserve Forest
India Innerline, Katakal and Barak Reserve Forests
India Jiri - Makru Wildlife Sanctuary
India Lumding - Marat Longri
India Yangoupokpi - Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary
Indonesia Alas Purwo
Indonesia Baluran
Indonesia Cikepuh
Indonesia Dataran Tinggi Hyang
Indonesia Gunung Cikurai
Indonesia Gunung Gede - Pangrango
Indonesia Gunung Ijen
Indonesia Gunung Raung
Indonesia Leuweung Sancang
Indonesia Meru Betiri
Indonesia Pasir Putih-Gunung Besar-Gunung Ringgit
Indonesia Teluk Lenggasana-Pulau Sempu
Indonesia Ujung Kulon
Laos Dong Khanthung
Laos Phou Khaokhoay
Laos Phou Xiang Thong
Laos Xe Kong Plains
Myanmar Alaungdaw Kathapa
Myanmar Bumphabum
Myanmar Htamanthi
Myanmar Hukaung Valley
Myanmar Indawgyi Lake Wildlife Sanctuary and surroundings
Myanmar Kamaing
Myanmar Mahamyaing
Myanmar Mehon (Doke-hta Wady River)
Myanmar North Nawin Dam Catchment Area
Myanmar North Zarmayi
Myanmar Tanai River
Myanmar Upper Mogaung Chaung basin
Myanmar Uyu River
Thailand Doi Pha Chang
Thailand Doi Phu Nang
Thailand Huai Kha Khaeng
Thailand Mae Jarim National Park
Thailand Mae Jarim Wildlife Sanctuary
Thailand Mae Yom
Thailand Nanthaburi
Thailand Sri Nakarin
Thailand Sri Nan
Thailand Thung Yai - Naresuan
Thailand Wiang Lo
Vietnam A Yun Pa
Vietnam Bach Ma
Vietnam Chu M'lanh
Vietnam Chu Prong
Vietnam Dak Dam
Vietnam Ea So
Vietnam Nam Cat Tien
Vietnam Ya Lop
Vietnam Yok Don

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines
Stresses
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Species disturbance
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines
Stresses
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Utilisation
Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food (human) Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Food - human - - Non-trivial Recent
Handicrafts, jewellery, decorations, curios Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Handicrafts, jewellery, etc. - - Non-trivial Recent
Other household goods - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Pets Whole Adults and juveniles Wild International Trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - Non-trivial Recent
Sport Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - Non-trivial Recent
Wearing apparel, accessories Whole Adults and juveniles Wild Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Pavo muticus. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/03/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://www.birdlife.org on 20/03/2019.