Green Peafowl Pavo muticus


Taxonomic source(s)
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Volume 1: Non-passerines. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.

IUCN Red List criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- A2cd+3cd+4cd A2cd+3cd+4cd

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2018 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2016 Endangered A2c+3c+4cd
2013 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2012 Endangered A2cd+3cd+4cd
2009 Endangered A2c,d; A3c,d; A4c,d
2008 Vulnerable
2004 Vulnerable
2000 Vulnerable
1996 Vulnerable
1994 Vulnerable
1988 Threatened
Species attributes

Migratory status not a migrant Forest dependency medium
Land-mass type Land-mass type - continent
Land-mass type - shelf island
Average mass -

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 4,590,000 medium
Number of locations 11-100 -
Severely fragmented? yes -
Population and trend
Value Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
Number of mature individuals 10000-19999 poor suspected 2009
Population trend decreasing poor suspected 2007-2025
Decline % (10 years/3 generations future) 50-79 - - -
Decline % (10 years/3 generations past and future) 50-79 - - -
Number of subpopulations 2-100 - - -
Percentage in largest subpopulation 1-89 - - -
Generation length (years) 6.1 - - -

Population justification: Although rare compared with historic numbers, improved survey methodology and increased effort has led to an increase in the reporting rate and thus the population estimate has been revised upwards to 10,000-19,999 mature individuals, to reflect this improved knowledge. This equates to 15,000-29,999 individuals in total, rounded here to 15,000-30,000 individuals. Nevertheless this remains a coarse estimate and warrants refinement.

Trend justification: Habitat modification and utilisation continue to be intense in South-East Asia; they have almost certainly precipitated declines in this species's population of more than 50% over the past three generations and these are projected to continue. However, the rate of decline appears to vary considerably across the species's range. In Myanmar, the population is stable (Tordoff et al. 2007, R. Cavalieri and T. Savini in litt 2018), but is confined to small populations, scattered over a mosaic of degraded habitats (T. Savini in litt. 2018, Shwe et al. unpublished data). In China, the species has already disappeared from 60% of its former habitat, while the remaining population is in decline (Kong et al. 2018, T. Savini in litt. 2018). The overall population trend in Vietnam is unclear. A significant decline in Yok Don National Park was observed over the 15 years between 1998-2013, however the recorded density in Cat Tien National Park increased over that period, suggesting that the trend there was possibly stable or increasing (Sukumal et al. 2015, 2017, S. Dowell in litt. 2018). The population in Thailand  appears to be stable or even locally increasing (S. Dowell, J.W. Duckworth in litt. 2018, T. Savini in litt. 2018). Though there are no recent data from Laos, the species is known from only few localities, where it has undergone drastic declines (Evans and Timmins 1996, Vongkhamheng 2015, T. Savini in litt. 2018). In Cambodia, recent surveys found the species more widespread than previously believed (T. Gray in litt. 2018), but subject to high levels of hunting and habitat loss, even in protected areas (Nuttall et al. 2016, Loveridge et al. 2017, T. Savini in litt. 2018). In Indonesia, the current trend is uncertain. Declines were noted as early as the first quarter of the 20th century, but current data suggest that the population might be stable (T. Savini in litt. 2018).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Presence Origin Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Bangladesh extinct native yes
Cambodia extant native yes
China (mainland) extant native yes
India extinct native yes
Indonesia extant native yes
Laos extant native yes
Malaysia extinct native yes
Myanmar extant native yes
Thailand extant native yes
Vietnam extant native yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Vietnam Chu Prong
Vietnam A Yun Pa
Vietnam Bach Ma
Vietnam Ea So
Vietnam Yok Don
Vietnam Dak Dam
Vietnam Ya Lop
Vietnam Nam Cat Tien
China (mainland) Gaoligong Shan Nature Reserve (southern section)
China (mainland) Tongbiguan
China (mainland) Wuliangshan
China (mainland) Ailaoshan
China (mainland) Yongde Daxueshan
China (mainland) Nangunhe
China (mainland) Xishuangbanna
Indonesia Gunung Cikurai
Indonesia Leuweung Sancang
Indonesia Cikepuh
Indonesia Gunung Gede - Pangrango
Indonesia Ujung Kulon
Indonesia Teluk Lenggasana - Pulau Sempu
Indonesia Dataran Tinggi Hyang
Indonesia Pasir Putih - Gunung Besar - Gunung Ringgit
Indonesia Meru Betiri
Indonesia Gunung Raung
Indonesia Gunung Ijen
Indonesia Baluran
Indonesia Alas Purwo
Myanmar Indawgyi Lake Wildlife Sanctuary and surroundings
Myanmar Hukaung Valley
Myanmar Kamaing
Myanmar Upper Mogaung Chaung basin
Myanmar Htamanthi
Myanmar Uyu River
Myanmar Alaungdaw Kathapa
Myanmar Mehon (Doke-hta Wady River)
Myanmar Bumphabum
Myanmar Mahamyaing
Myanmar North Zarmayi
Thailand Sri Nan
Thailand Mae Jarim Wildlife Sanctuary
Thailand Mae Jarim National Park
Thailand Nanthaburi
Thailand Doi Pha Chang
Thailand Wiang Lo
Thailand Doi Phu Nang
Thailand Mae Yom
Thailand Thung Yai - Naresuan
Thailand Huai Kha Khaeng
Thailand Sri Nakarin
Vietnam Chu M'lanh
China (mainland) Konglonghe Nature Reserve
Laos Phou Khaokhoay
Cambodia Upper Stung Sen Catchment
Laos Phou Xiang Thong
Cambodia O Skach
Cambodia Chhep
Laos Dong Khanthung
Cambodia Western Siem Pang
Laos Xe Kong Plains
Cambodia Virachey
Cambodia Lomphat
Laos Dong Kalo
Cambodia Upper Srepok Catchment
Cambodia Mondulkiri - Kratie Lowlands
Cambodia Snoul / Keo Sema / O Reang
Cambodia Phnom Bokor
Myanmar Tanai River
Cambodia Sekong River
India Dhansiri Reserve Forest
India Ango or Anko Hills
India Jiri - Makru Wildlife Sanctuary
India Yangoupokpi - Lokchao Wildlife Sanctuary
China (mainland) Caiyanghe
China (mainland) Jiangzhongshan
China (mainland) Jinggu Banpo
China (mainland) Nabanhe Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Nuozadu Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Qinghua Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Weiyuanjiang Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zhangmuqing Nature Reserve
China (mainland) Zixishan Nature Reserve

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable resident
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Dry suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Lowland suitable resident
Forest Subtropical/Tropical Moist Montane suitable resident
Grassland Subtropical/Tropical High Altitude suitable resident
Savanna Dry suitable resident
Shrubland Subtropical/Tropical Moist suitable resident
Altitude 0 - 2100 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Agriculture & aquaculture Annual & perennial non-timber crops - Agro-industry farming Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Intentional use (species is the target) Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Species mortality
Biological resource use Hunting & trapping terrestrial animals - Persecution/control Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Rapid Declines Medium Impact: 7
Species mortality
Biological resource use Logging & wood harvesting - Unintentional effects: (subsistence/small scale) [harvest] Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation
Human intrusions & disturbance Work & other activities Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Majority (50-90%) Slow, Significant Declines Medium Impact: 6
Species disturbance
Residential & commercial development Housing & urban areas Timing Scope Severity Impact
Ongoing Minority (<50%) Slow, Significant Declines Low Impact: 5
Ecosystem degradation, Ecosystem conversion

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - non-trivial recent
Handicrafts, jewellery, etc. - - non-trivial recent
Other household goods - - non-trivial recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - non-trivial recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - non-trivial recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2023) Species factsheet: Pavo muticus. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org/species/factsheet/green-peafowl-pavo-muticus on 30/09/2023. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2023) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from http://datazone.birdlife.org on 30/09/2023.