Greater White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons


Taxonomic source(s)
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
AERC TAC. 2003. AERC TAC Checklist of bird taxa occurring in Western Palearctic region, 15th Draft. Available at: # _the_WP15.xls#.
Cramp, S. and Perrins, C.M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
Cramp, S.; Perrins, C. M. 1977-1994. Handbook of the birds of Europe, the Middle East and Africa. The birds of the western Palearctic. Oxford University Press, Oxford.
del Hoyo, J., Collar, N.J., Christie, D.A., Elliott, A. and Fishpool, L.D.C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Lynx Edicions BirdLife International, Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge, UK.
del Hoyo, J.; Collar, N. J.; Christie, D. A.; Elliott, A.; Fishpool, L. D. C. 2014. HBW and BirdLife International Illustrated Checklist of the Birds of the World. Barcelona, Spain and Cambridge UK: Lynx Edicions and BirdLife International.

IUCN Red list criteria met and history
Red List criteria met
Critically Endangered Endangered Vulnerable
- - -

Red List history
Year Category Criteria
2016 Least Concern
2012 Least Concern
2009 Least Concern
2008 Least Concern
2004 Least Concern
2000 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1994 Lower Risk/Least Concern
1988 Lower Risk/Least Concern
Species attributes

Migratory status full migrant Forest dependency Does not normally occur in forest
Land mass type Average mass -
Extent of occurrence (EOO)

Estimate Data quality
Extent of Occurrence breeding/resident (km2) 19,200,000 medium
Extent of Occurrence non-breeding (km2) 88,000,000 medium
Number of locations -
Fragmentation -
Population and trend
Estimate Data quality Derivation Year of estimate
No. of mature individuals poor estimated 2012
Population trend Unknown not applicable -
Decline (3 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (5 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/1 generation past) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation future) - - -
Decline (10 years/3 generation past and future) - - -
Number of subpopulations - - -
Largest subpopulations - - -
Generation length (yrs) 11.3 - - -

Population justification: The global population is estimated at 3,100,000-3,200,000 individuals (Wetlands International 2015). The European population is estimated at 259,000-310,000 pairs, which equates to 518,000-620,000 mature individuals (BirdLife International 2015).

Trend justification: The overall population trend is uncertain, as some populations are decreasing, while others are stable, increasing or have unknown trends (Wetlands International 2015). This species has undergone a large and statistically significant increase over the last 40 years in North America (5500% increase over 40 years, equating to a 173% increase per decade; data from Breeding Bird Survey and/or Christmas Bird Count: Butcher and Niven 2007) Note, however, that these surveys cover less than 50% of the species's range in North America. In Europe the population size is estimated to be stable (BirdLife International 2015).

Country/territory distribution
Country/Territory Occurrence status Presence Resident Breeding Non-breeding Passage
Afghanistan V Extant
Albania N Extant Yes
Armenia N Extant Yes
Aruba (to Netherlands) V Extant
Austria N Extant Yes Yes
Azerbaijan N Extant Yes
Belarus N Extant Yes
Belgium N Extant Yes
Belize N Extant
Bermuda (to UK) V Extant Yes
Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba (to Netherlands) V Extant
Bosnia and Herzegovina N Extant
Bulgaria N Extant Yes Yes
Canada N Extant Yes Yes
China (mainland) N Extant
Croatia N Extant Yes
Cuba N Extant
Curaçao (to Netherlands) V Extant
Cyprus N Extant Yes
Czechia N Extant Yes Yes
Denmark N Extant Yes Yes
Egypt N Extant
Faroe Islands (to Denmark) N Extant
Finland N Extant Yes
France N Extant Yes Yes
Germany N Extant Yes Yes
Greece N Extant Yes
Greenland (to Denmark) N Extant Yes Yes
Hungary N Extant Yes Yes
India N Extant
Iran, Islamic Republic of N Extant Yes
Iraq N Extant Yes
Ireland N Extant Yes
Israel N Extant
Italy N Extant Yes
Japan N Extant
Jordan V Extant Yes
Kazakhstan N Extant
Kuwait V Extant Yes
Kyrgyzstan N Extant Yes
Latvia N Extant Yes Yes
Lebanon N Extant Yes Yes
Libya V Extant
Liechtenstein V Extant
Luxembourg N Extant Yes
Malta V Extant
Mauritania V Extant
Mexico N Extant
Montenegro N Extant Yes
Morocco V Extant
Myanmar N Extant
Netherlands N Extant Yes
Niger V Extant
Nigeria V Extant
North Korea N Extant Yes Yes
North Macedonia N Extant Yes
Norway N Extant
Oman N Extant Yes
Pakistan N Extant
Palestinian Authority Territories V Extant Yes
Poland N Extant Yes Yes
Portugal V Extant
Qatar N Extant Yes
Romania N Extant Yes Yes
Russia N Extant Yes
Russia (Asian) N Extant Yes
Russia (Central Asian) N Extant Yes Yes
Russia (European) N Extant Yes Yes
Saudi Arabia N Extant Yes
Serbia N Extant Yes
Sint Maarten (to Netherlands) V Extant
Slovakia N Extant Yes Yes
Slovenia N Extant Yes
South Korea N Extant
Spain N Extant Yes
St Pierre and Miquelon (to France) V Extant Yes
Sudan V Extant Yes
Sweden N Extant Yes Yes
Switzerland N Extant Yes
Syria N Extant Yes Yes
Taiwan, China N Extant
Tajikistan V Extant
Tunisia V Extant
Turkey N Extant Yes
Turkmenistan N Extant
Ukraine N Extant Yes Yes
United Arab Emirates N Extant Yes
United Kingdom N Extant Yes
USA N Extant Yes
Uzbekistan N Extant
Yemen V Extant Yes

Important Bird and Biodiversity Areas (IBA)
Country/Territory IBA Name
Austria Southern Seewinkel and Zitzmannsdorfer Wiesen
Azerbaijan Aggyol
Azerbaijan Gizilagach State Reserve
Belarus Cikiny astravy
Belarus Mid Prypiac'
Belgium Krekengebied
Belgium Polderkomplex
Belgium Zwin
Bulgaria Atanasovsko Lake
Bulgaria Batova
Bulgaria Burgasko Lake
Bulgaria Chairya
Bulgaria Durankulak Lake
Bulgaria Kaliakra
Bulgaria Malko Sharkovo reservoir
Bulgaria Mandra-Poda complex
Bulgaria Ovtcharitsa Reservoir
Bulgaria Pyasachnik Reservoir
Bulgaria Shabla Lake Complex
Bulgaria Srebarna
Bulgaria Straldzha Complex
Bulgaria Svishtov-Belene Lowland
Bulgaria Zhrebchevo Reservoir
Canada Beaverhill Lake
Canada Galloway and Miry Bay
Canada Hay and Zama Lakes
Canada Kugaluk River
Canada Last Mountain Lake National Wildlife Area
Canada Luck Lake
Canada Mackenzie River Delta
Canada Oak Lake/Plum Lakes Area
Canada Queen Maud Gulf
Canada Rasmussen Lowlands
China (mainland) Dongting Hu wetlands
China (mainland) Yellow River Delta Nature Reserve
Czechia Nove Mlyny middle reservoir
Estonia Põhja-Liivimaa
Estonia Räpina polder
Estonia Ropka-Ihaste
Estonia Võrtsjärv
Germany Aland-Elbe lowlands
Germany Alte Oder
Germany Breeser See
Germany Coast and lagoons of Western Pomerania
Germany Conventer See
Germany Deichvorland Oderbruch
Germany Dollart
Germany Dümmer
Germany Eastern shore of Lake Müritz, Grosser Schwerin and Steinhorn
Germany Elbe lowlands between Schnackenburg and Lauenburg
Germany Elbe lowlands Jerichow
Germany Elbe marshes between Stade and Otterndorf
Germany Elbe valley of Mecklenburg
Germany Ems valley between Leer and Emden
Germany Engerhafer Meede
Germany Fiener Bruch
Germany Gandersum/Lange Maar
Germany Gransee / Zehdenick / Schnelle Havel
Germany Greifswalder Bodden
Germany Großer and Kleiner Jasmunder Bodden with Schmachter See and Nonnensee
Germany Grünewalder Lauch - Pulsnitzniederung
Germany Island of Usedom
Germany Jadebusen, inland
Germany Lakes of Schwerin, Dambeck and Warin
Germany Lauenburgische Seen Nature Park and Schaalsee area
Germany Lewitz
Germany Lower Elbe valley
Germany Lower Havel - Lake Schollene - Lake Gülpe
Germany Lower Oder valley
Germany Lower reaches of river Warnow
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, embanked area
Germany Lower reaches of River Weser, unembanked area
Germany Lower Rhine
Germany Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park
Germany Lowlands of middle Havel
Germany Luckauer Becken
Germany Malxe lowlands / Lakomaer Teiche
Germany Märkische Schweiz
Germany Mecklenburgische Schweiz
Germany Mönchsee
Germany Nossentiner-/Schwinzer Heide with Krakower Obersee and Plauer See
Germany Oberes Rhinluch / Havelländisches Luch Nauen-Friesack
Germany Oberlausitz heathland and fishponds biosphere reserve
Germany Oderbruch
Germany Parumer See, Sumpfsee, Inselsee
Germany Peenetal (Peenetalmoor and Anklamer Stadtbruch)
Germany Peitzer und Bärenbrücker Teiche
Germany Pinneberg Elbe lowlands
Germany Putzarer See, Galenbecker See, Brohmer Berge
Germany Recknitz and Trebel valley
Germany Rheiderland
Germany Rietzer See
Germany Schaalsee
Germany Schorfheide-Chorin
Germany Southern Tollense basin
Germany Spreewald
Germany Steinhuder Meer
Germany Surroundings of Dassower See
Germany Terborg
Germany Torgelower See and Varchentiner See
Germany Traveförde and Dassower See
Germany Ueckermünder Heide
Germany Unteres Rhinluch-Dreetzer See / Havelländisches Luch / Belziger Landschaftswiesen
Germany Usedom lagoon (Peenestrom, Achterwasser, Kleines Haff with Neuwarper See)
Germany Valley of River Ems
Germany Wismar bay and Salzhaff
Germany Zerbster Land
Greenland (to Denmark) Aqajarua-Sullorsuaq (Mudderbugten and Kvandalen)
Greenland (to Denmark) Eqalummiut Nunaat-Nassuttuup Nunaa
Greenland (to Denmark) Itinneq
Greenland (to Denmark) Itsako
Greenland (to Denmark) Naternaq (Lersletten)
Hungary Alkaline lakes of Kiskunság
Hungary Béda–Karapancsa
Hungary Csanád Pusztas
Hungary Gemenc
Hungary Hódmezővásárhely Pusztas
Hungary Hortobágy and Tisza-to
Hungary Kis-Sárrét
Hungary Lake Balaton
Hungary Lake Fertő
Hungary Lake Kis-Balaton
Hungary Lower Tisza Valley
Hungary Öreg Lake of Tata
Hungary Sárvíz Valley
Hungary Velence Lake–Dinnyés Lake
Iceland Ferjubakkaflói-Nordurá
Iceland Oddaflód-Lambhagavatn
Iceland Ósasvædi Ölfusár
Iceland Pollengi-Hrosshagavík
Iceland Skúmsstadavatn
Iceland Vetleifsholtsbugar-Thykkvabæjarvatn
Iran, Islamic Republic of Anzali Mordab complex
Iran, Islamic Republic of Arjan Protected Area
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dasht-e-Moghan
Iran, Islamic Republic of Dez river marshes and plains
Iran, Islamic Republic of Fereidoonkenar marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Karun river marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Bakhtegan, Lake Tashk and Kamjan marshes
Iran, Islamic Republic of Lake Uromiyeh
Iran, Islamic Republic of Nowruzlu and Ghazanlu
Iraq Dukan Lake
Iraq Huweija marshes
Ireland Lough Iron and Glen Lough
Ireland Lough Swilly including Blanket Nook and Inch Lake
Ireland River Foyle: Carrigans and Swilly Burn valleys
Ireland River Little Brosna callows: New Bridge - River Shannon
Ireland Wexford Harbour and Slobs
Japan Hachirogata
Japan Izunuma and nearby lakes
Japan Katano-Kamoike
Japan Kyu-Osatsunuma
Japan Lake Kabukurinuma
Japan Lake Kejonuma
Japan Lake Shinjiko
Japan Lake Utonai, Yufutu plain
Japan Lakes Asahiike and Unoike
Japan Lower Kuzuryugawa
Japan Mawarizeki and Sunazawa reservoir
Japan Middle Ishikari River basin
Japan Mukawa
Japan Otomonuma reservoir
Japan Tokachi coastal lakes
Kazakhstan Aksuat Lake
Kazakhstan Akzhan Lake
Kazakhstan Bolshoy Kak Lake
Kazakhstan Kamyshovoe-Zhamankol Lakes
Kazakhstan Korgalzhyn State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Koybagar-Tyuntyugur Lake System
Kazakhstan Kulykol-Taldykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Kumdykol-Zharlykol Lake System
Kazakhstan Kushmurun Lake
Kazakhstan Maliy Kak Lake
Kazakhstan Naurzum State Nature Reserve
Kazakhstan Russkiy Zharkol
Kazakhstan Sarykopa Lake System
Kazakhstan Shagyrkol and Mamyrkol lakes
Kazakhstan Sorbalyk-Maybalyk Lake System
Kazakhstan Sulukol Lake
Kazakhstan Terenkol Lake
Kazakhstan Uyalyshalkar Lake System
Kazakhstan Zharkol Lakes
Kazakhstan Zhumay-Mayshukyr Lake System
Latvia Ziemelu bogs
Lithuania Birveta Fish-farm including segments of Dysna River and Birveta River valleys
Lithuania Flooded meadows arround the Senoji & Naujoji Rusne lakes
Lithuania Kamanos Strict Nature Reserve
Lithuania Nemunas delta regional Park
Lithuania The northern part of the Curonian Lagoon
Lithuania Zuvintas Biosphere Reserve
Mexico Complejo de Humedales del Noroeste de Chihuahua
Mexico Delta del Río Colorado
Netherlands Alde Feanen
Netherlands Biesbosch
Netherlands Deelen
Netherlands Dollard
Netherlands Donkse Laagten
Netherlands Gelderse Poort
Netherlands Groote Wielen
Netherlands Lake Fluessen, Vogelhoek and Morra
Netherlands Lake Sneekermeer and Goingarijp
Netherlands Lauwersmeer
Netherlands Leekstermeergebied
Netherlands Oostvaardersplassen
Netherlands Oudeland van Strijen
Netherlands Terkaplesterpoelen and Akmarijp
Netherlands Uiterwaarden Zwarte Water & Vecht
Netherlands Van Oordt's Mersken
Netherlands Waal: Ewijk - Waardenburg
Netherlands Westerschelde & Saeftinghe
Netherlands Witte en Zwarte Brekken
Netherlands Yerseke & Kapelse Moer
North Korea Daedong Bay
North Korea Kumya Bay
North Korea Lake Kwangpo
North Korea Lake Manpo and Lake Bonpo
North Korea Lake Samilpo
North Korea Onchon field
North Korea Ongjin Bay
North Korea Orangchon River estuary
North Korea Panmun field
Poland Biebrza river valley
Poland Cedynia Site
Poland Goplo Lake Site
Poland Lower Odra river valley
Poland Mala Welna River Valley
Poland Marshy valley of the Drweca river
Poland Middle Notec River Valley
Poland Miedwie site
Poland Ner River Valley
Poland Notec river flood-plain
Poland Przysowia and Sludwia River valley
Poland Pulwy Marshes
Poland Slowinski National Park
Poland Swidwie lake
Poland Upper Narew River Valley
Poland Vistula Lagoon
Poland Warta River Mouth
Poland Weltyn lakes
Romania Braţul Borcea
Romania Cefa fish-ponds and Radvani wood
Romania Danube Delta
Romania Grădiştea - Dridu
Romania Iezerul Călăraşi
Romania Ilfov reservoir
Romania Jijiei şi Miletinului fish-ponds
Romania Lake Beibugeac (Plopu)
Romania Lake Brateş
Romania Lake Dunăreni
Romania Lake Oltina
Romania Lake Strachina
Romania Lake Techirghiol
Romania Măxineni
Romania Olt valley
Romania Prut river flood-plain - Vlădeşti - Frumuşiţa
Russia (Asian) Amur river mouth
Russia (Asian) Arkhara lowlands
Russia (Asian) Bolon' lake
Russia (Asian) Forty islands
Russia (Asian) Kanchalan river basin
Russia (Asian) Keremesit-Sundrun watershed
Russia (Asian) Kharchinskoye lake
Russia (Asian) Lebediny refuge (Markovo depression)
Russia (Asian) Lower Anadyr lowlands
Russia (Asian) Lower Nizhnyaya Taymyra river
Russia (Asian) Malakchan bay
Russia (Asian) Malamvayam lagoon
Russia (Asian) Manily lakes
Russia (Asian) Meechkyn spit and adjacent plain
Russia (Asian) Meinypylginski and Kapylgyn lakes
Russia (Asian) Nevskoye Lake
Russia (Asian) North-east Sakhalin lagoons
Russia (Asian) Parapol'skiy valley
Russia (Asian) San-Yuryakh
Russia (Asian) Tyk and Viakhtu bays
Russia (Asian) Utkholok river
Russia (Asian) Zhupanovskiy lagoon
Russia (Central Asian) Dvuob'ye
Russia (Central Asian) Gor'koye lake near Novotroitskoye village
Russia (Central Asian) Holes of the Karasuk river downstream
Russia (Central Asian) Kaban'i lakes
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Ob'
Russia (Central Asian) Lower Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) North flood-plain of the Ishim river
Russia (Central Asian) Siverga lake
Russia (Central Asian) Upper and Middle Yuribey
Russia (Central Asian) Valley of the Yorkutayakha river
Russia (European) Agriculture lands of south and east of Novouzenski district
Russia (European) Budnyanski mire
Russia (European) Burukshunskiye limans
Russia (European) Bylinskaya
Russia (European) Chechen' Island and east seaside of Agrakhan peninsula
Russia (European) Cheremshanski Bay of Kuybyshev Reservoir
Russia (European) Dadynskiye lakes
Russia (European) Delta of the River Don
Russia (European) Desna flood-plain near Trubchevsk
Russia (European) Downstream of Ik river
Russia (European) Dunilovskoye bog
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Algashka river (Kirsko-Algashinskaya)
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Iput' river in vicinity of Kholevichami
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Iput' river in vicinity of Krutoyar
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kostroma river
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Kotorosl' and Ust'e rivers
Russia (European) Flood-plain of Yukhot' river
Russia (European) Floodplain of Cheptsa river
Russia (European) Floodplain of the Terek river near Staroshchedrinskaya
Russia (European) Floodplains of the Unzha river near Kologriv
Russia (European) Homeland of the Crane (Dubna marshes and adjacent areas)
Russia (European) Islands in the western part of Lake Manych-Gudilo
Russia (European) Issinski
Russia (European) Izhevsk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Karabash-Kudashskaya forest-steppe
Russia (European) Kargopol' area
Russia (European) Kazachka
Russia (European) Khaypudyrskaya Bay (Islands of B. Zelenets, Dolgi, Matveyev)
Russia (European) Kolguev island
Russia (European) Kologrivski forest
Russia (European) Kozinka lake and Baranikovski segment of Manych
Russia (European) Kuloy river
Russia (European) Kurnikov liman
Russia (European) Lake Lacha
Russia (European) Lower Eruslan
Russia (European) Lysyi Liman lake and valley of Vostochniy Manych river
Russia (European) Manturovo left bank of the Unzha river
Russia (European) Manychstroi area
Russia (European) Moksha flood-plain in vicinity of Krasnoslobodsk
Russia (European) Moksha valley in vicinity of Temnikov
Russia (European) Oka valley in vicinity of Murmino
Russia (European) Olonets plain
Russia (European) Orshinski marshes
Russia (European) River Chernaya
Russia (European) Russki Zavorot Peninsula and eastern part of Malozemelskaya Tundra
Russia (European) Rybinsk reservoir
Russia (European) Savtsinskoye marsh
Russia (European) Shalimovskoye bog
Russia (European) Shalkaro-Zhetykol'ski lake system
Russia (European) Shilovo flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Solotcha flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Southern part of Chograiski reservoir
Russia (European) Spassk flood-plain of Oka river
Russia (European) Stakhovski marshes
Russia (European) Steppes in the vicinity of Kanavka village
Russia (European) Sura environs
Russia (European) Unskaya bay
Russia (European) Upper Mologa river (lake Verestovo)
Russia (European) Valley complex of Moksha and Oka rivers
Russia (European) Varegovskoye bog
Russia (European) Vaygach island
Russia (European) Veselovskoye reservoir
Russia (European) Vorono-Khoperski area
Russia (European) Watershed of Kazanka and Shoshma rivers
Russia (European) Zavoronezhski area
Serbia Danube loess bluffs
Serbia Gornje Potamisje
Serbia Labudovo okno
Serbia Slano Kopovo
Serbia Srednje Potamišje
Slovakia Syslovské fields
Slovenia River Drava
South Korea Cheolwon basin
South Korea Cheonsu Bay
South Korea Geum-gang river and estuary
South Korea Gumi Haepyeong
South Korea Han-gang estuary
South Korea Junam reservoir
South Korea Suncheon Bay
South Korea Tidal flat area of southern Ganghwa-do island
Syria Baath Lake
Turkey Akşehir and Eber Lakes
Turkey Çöl Lake and Çalıkdüzü
Turkey Eşmekaya Marshes
Turkey Işıklı Lake
Turkey Karapınar Plain
Turkey Kulu Lake
Turkey Seyfe Lake
Turkey Tersakan Lake
Turkey Tuz Lake
Ukraine Agricultural lands near Bilorets'ke (Chornozemne village)
Ukraine Askania-Nova Biosphere Reserve
Ukraine Chauda
Ukraine Dnipro delta
Ukraine Ikva river valley
Ukraine Kakhovs'ke reservoir (Energodar)
Ukraine Korostushevskoe Game Reserve
Ukraine Kugurluj and Kartal lakes
Ukraine Kytaj lake
Ukraine Molochnyj Liman
Ukraine River Danube
Ukraine Sasyk lake
Ukraine Shagany-Alibej-Burnas lake-system
Ukraine Stentsivs'ko-Zhebriyanivs'ki plavni
Ukraine Sul's'ka bay
Ukraine Syvash Bay
Ukraine Tyligul's'kyj lyman
Ukraine Utlyuk lyman
Ukraine Uzunlars'ke lake
Ukraine Yagorlyts'ka and Tendrivs'ka Bays
United Kingdom Annaghroe, River Blackwater
United Kingdom Coll
United Kingdom Dyfi Estuary/Aber Dyfi
United Kingdom Eilean na Muice Duibh, Islay
United Kingdom Gruinart Flats
United Kingdom Kintyre Goose Roosts
United Kingdom Laggan Peninsula
United Kingdom Loch of Inch and Torrs Warren
United Kingdom Lower Lough Macnean
United Kingdom Machrihanish
United Kingdom Pettigoe Plateau
United Kingdom Rhunahaorine Point
United Kingdom Rinns of Islay
United Kingdom The Oa
United Kingdom Tiree and Coll
USA Coastal Prairie
USA Iditarod River Lowlands
USA Quivira National Wildlife Refuge

Habitats & altitude
Habitat (level 1) Habitat (level 2) Importance Occurrence
Artificial/Terrestrial Arable Land suitable non-breeding
Artificial/Terrestrial Pastureland suitable non-breeding
Grassland Tundra suitable breeding
Marine Coastal/Supratidal Coastal Brackish/Saline Lagoons/Marine Lakes suitable non-breeding
Marine Neritic Estuaries suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Bogs, Marshes, Swamps, Fens, Peatlands suitable non-breeding
Wetlands (inland) Tundra Wetlands (incl. pools and temporary waters from snowmelt) major breeding
Altitude 0 - 2500 m Occasional altitudinal limits  

Threats & impact
Threat (level 1) Threat (level 2) Impact and Stresses
Climate change & severe weather Habitat shifting & alteration Timing Scope Severity Impact
Future Whole (>90%) Unknown Unknown
Indirect ecosystem effects, Ecosystem degradation

Purpose Primary form used Life stage used Source Scale Level Timing
Food - human - - - Non-trivial Recent
Pets/display animals, horticulture - - - International Non-trivial Recent
Sport hunting/specimen collecting - - - Non-trivial Recent

Recommended citation
BirdLife International (2019) Species factsheet: Anser albifrons. Downloaded from on 15/12/2019. Recommended citation for factsheets for more than one species: BirdLife International (2019) IUCN Red List for birds. Downloaded from on 15/12/2019.